Friday, September 4, 2020

Media Diary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Media Diary - Essay Example The patterns amass and spread to people who at that point show various gatherings a similar pattern. This prompts a feeling of ubiquity with a given affiliation and the relationship that it holds to a principle association, permitting the focal zone to keep on developing in view of the affiliations that have been utilized for systems administration and advancement. b. The idea of systems administration and developing with patterns and goals is one which is explicit to proficient affiliations that are working for community commitment in American popular government. Various affiliations will have a particular plan identified with political pioneers, rights, bills and different changes required in the public eye. The affiliations can take a particular issue and promote this to society. As this is done, people can choose possibly in support of the pioneer, strategy or other issue from the affiliation. This permits the popularity based choices and patterns to come to fruition and to drive explicit issues into the focal point of legislative issues. Progressively significant, various kinds of affiliations can make various patterns and affiliations. A large number of the affiliations will have a progressive structure dependent on the significance of the political commitment required. These will be pushed to make a particular pattern in the public arena and to adjust the manner by which many react to the given issue. This makes a feeling of city direction inside society and structures equitable issues and the degree of reactions and patterns which are seen among gatherings of people (Schofer, Gourinchas, 806). c. The hierarchical concerns which happen after some time happen due to the examples and changes inside society. Creators note that the progressions which become of concern depend on both the inward and outside condition. In the inward condition, there is a worry due to the representative elements and the decent variety which is a piece of the work power. Diverse social impacts, individual inclinations and comprehension of the association changes the elements of the working zone and what happens inside the association. For most, this prompts the need to make a hierarchical situation which can coordinate the requirements of people and gatherings. Increasingly significant, there is the need to make a feeling of changes to guarantee that there is authoritative development and which addresses the difficulties for rivalry and inside the commercial center. The progressions in authoritative concerns are assisted by the cultural patterns which happen and which impact the examples in purchasing propensities. A business is essentially centered around giving items and administrations to clients. In any case, there are elements which change the achievement of this primary objective. This remembers modifications for cultural requests, patterns and practices, political adjustments, conviction frameworks by gatherings, notices and rivalry. There are additi onally impacts inside the economy which changes the notoriety of an enterprise. The patterns which are in the public eye at that point impact the examples of an organizations achievement and their capacity to push ahead with explicit changes that can incorporate with the requirements of cultural patterns (Coplien, 43). d. The effect which is given from proficient associations and city commitment depends in transit in which each impacts the other. Proficient associations create with a particular reason or need to impact society in a given way. This is finished by giving data and by indicating the advantages or defeats

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Role of Sales Budget in the Production free essay sample

The business spending plan is a preservationist gauge on the assessed size of the deals, for the most part utilized for the buy, creation and income choices. Unmistakably, the advertising financial plan ought consider deals estimates, yet in addition to dodge unreasonable hazard, general deals spending plan ought to be marginally lower than the corporate prescient worth. Deals financial plan is generally the beginning stage of creation and activity of thorough spending planning, creation, material acquirement, stock expenses and different parts of the financial plan ought to be founded on the business financial plan. The showcasing spending expenses and deals objectives connected. The business spending plan is a money related arrangement, which incorporates the expense of the advertising spending showcasing plan goals, so as to guarantee the acknowledgment of the benefits of the companys deals. The business financial plan is simply after the culmination of the business gauge, deals target is separated into different degrees of sub-objectives. When these sub-objectives are resolved, the relating cost of deals has additionally been settled. We will compose a custom exposition test on The Role of Sales Budget in the Production or then again any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Deals spending plan depended on deals gauge, and which dependent on the investigation of verifiable deals of different items, joined with data on an assortment of items in the market figure improvement possibilities, first side-effect, locale, client and different things to be readied, and afterward make consolidated and summed up. Decide future anticipated deals and the business cost dependent on deals figures, compute the normal income: Projected deals revenue= the normal deals? xpected deals unit cost. As indicated by the companys monetary area insights throughout the previous barely any days, in January, fly debris dryer, drum dryer, buoyancy cells and other gear represented over 60% of deals as far as deals. Accordingly, we can say these gadgets are as of now in incredible interest in the market. Among them standard and short head type are famous. Their fundamental contrasts between are the area state of smash chamber and equal band length. The portable cone of standard kind slopes steep, the equal band is short; the short head type slants delicate, the equal band is long, the highlights mobile cone of center sort are between the two sorts.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Rbi Organisational Chart Essay Example

Rbi Organizational Chart Essay Save BANK OF INDIA : Organization CENTRAL BOARD OF DIRECTORS GOVERNOR Dr. D. SUBBARAO DEPUTY GOVERNORS Dr. K. C. CHAKRABARTY Dr. SUBHIR GOKARN SHRI ANAND SINHA SHRI H. R. KHAN Co-appointment Work Executive Directors Department of Currency Management (Dr. N. Krishna Mohan, CGM) Financial Markets Department Shri V. K. Sharma Rural Planning Credit Department (Smt. Deepali Pant Joshi, CGM-inCharge) Customer Service Department (Shri Rajesh Verma, CGM) (G. Mahalingam, Chief General Manager) Money related Stability Unit (Dr. Rabi. N. Mishra, CGM) Secretarys Department (Smt. Effortlessness E. Koshie, CGM Secretary) Central Vigilance Cell (Shri Kaza Sudhakar, Chief Vigilance Officer) Department of Communication (Alpana Killawala, CGM) Right to Information Department of Expenditure Budgetary Control (Smt Deepa Srivastava, CGM-inCharge) Shri V. S. Das (likewise First Appellate Authority under Right to Information Act) Shri G. Gopalakrishna Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Fiscal Policy Department (Dr. Janak Raj, Adviser-in-Charge) Department of Economic and Policy Research (Shri B M Misra, Officer-inCharge) Department of Statistics Information Management (Shri A. B. Chakraborty, Officer-inCharge) Shri D. K. Mohanty Urban Banks Department (Shri A. Udgata, CGM-in-Charge) Shri S. Karuppasamy (likewise Alternate Appellate Authority under Right to Information Act) Premises Department (Shri K. R Ananda, CGM) Legal Department (Shri G. S. Hegde, Principal Legal Adviser) Department of Administration and Personnel Management Shri R. Gandhi Central Security Cell (Major General (Retd. ) Soli N. Pavri, Security Adviser) Internal Debt Management Department (Shri K. K. Vohra, CGM) Department of External Investments Operations (Smt. Madumita Sarkar Deb, CGM â€in†Charge) Department of Non-Banking Supervision (Smt. Uma Subramaniam, CGM-inCharge) Department of Government Bank Accounts (Shri A. K. We will compose a custom article test on Rbi Organizational Chart explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Rbi Organizational Chart explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Rbi Organizational Chart explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Bera, CGM) Inspection Department (counting Internal Audit) (Shri Karunasagar, CGM) Department of Payment and Settlement Systems (Shri Vijay Chugh, CGM) Foreign Exchange Department (Smt Meena Hemchandra, CGM-in-Charge) Human Resource and Management Department (Shri Sandip Ghose, CGM in †Charge) Rajbhasha Department Shri P. Vijaya Bhaskar Department of Banking Supervision (Shri G. Jaganmohan Rao, CGMin-Charge) Shri. B. Mahapatra Department of Banking Operations and Development (Shri Deepak Singhal CGM-inCharge) Shri G. Padmanabhan Department of Information Technology (Dr. A. S. Ramasastri, CGM)

A Journal opinion article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 11

A Journal sentiment article - Essay Example When contrasted with a similar period a year ago, JP Morgan enrolled a decrease in bond exchanging income by 21%. Moreover, the bank income acquired from the home loan diminished to 84%. Significant viewpoint that caused the horrible showing by the bank was because of vulnerabilities that encompassed the US economy to the extent loaning to buyers and exchanging volumes are concerned. Being one of the Wall Street banks to post the diminished income, JP Morgan shows how the money related area has been confronted with troubles in the principal quarter of 2014. Moreover, greater part of the organizations claimed by the bank including the business loaning and the charge cards demonstrated low benefits. This came about to decreased all out income for the bank in the primary quarter an angle that may bring about decrease of yearly income if the pattern of the low execution in the money related part proceeds in the rest of the quarters. As per the bank, the net gain tumbled to $5.27 billion which is comparable to $1.28 per share structure the $6.53bn, or $1.59 per share which was knowledgeable about a similar period in 2013. As indicated by the experts, the bank procuring per share was required to remain at $1.40 per share. Be that as it may, this was not accomplished because of the decrease in net income which experienced 8.5% tumble to remain at $22.99bn while the bank anticipated that absolute income should remain at $24.53billion. Essentially, in the premarket exchanging, JP shares scaled down by 3.3% to sell at $55.50 going astray from $61 most significant expenses that the bank has kept up throughout the previous 13 years. This is a significant pointer of terrible showing of the bank an angle that may result to low degree of trust from the clients just as speculators. Regardless of the low execution by the JP Morgan, Jamie Dimon, the CEO demonstrates that the biggest bank in US is making trust in the country’s economy. As the aftereffect of

Friday, August 21, 2020

Mountain Walking in the Andes Essay Example For Students

Mountain Walking in the Andes Essay Dear Pinyot, I couldnt accept that I won the opposition! What's more, I was allowed to make a trip to any of the goals they referenced as following uncommon mountain for gorillas in Uganda, hedge strolling with guides in Kenya and there were a lot more however I decided to make a trip to the Andes on a significant treks with master guides who will simply be following behind you and will look for in the event that you need any assistance just on the off chance that you are lost or parched/hungry. Significant treks are the place you go mountain strolling for six to eight hours in a day. I decided to go to mountain strolling on the grounds that I like to go to places, which are exceptionally calm and serene, and uncrowded on the grounds that I need to be in a spot where you can escape from your ordinary issues and feel unstressed just because on account of work, and so on and places where you can feel so forlorn and free just because. All gratitude to my closest companion Charles I won the opposition he caused me to enter it in any case and he disclosed to me that I won!! This is what happened It was in the first part of the day and I simply had woken up, The telephone rings and I answer, Hullo, Hussein here? The voice on the opposite end requests Mr. Moechsin and I answer, This is he. The voice says she is calling to help me to remember my 4:00 PM dental arrangement. I moan and reveal to her I will be there. It was four oclock as of now, I enter the structure and strolled over to the lift; I pressed the up button and quietly pause. The lift entryway quickly opened and I got in. I pressed the catch with a two on it and the entryways shut. Once on the second floor I left the lift and promptly I could smell the blend of a blend of toothpaste and the smell you for the most part smell in medical clinics as you enter them. What's more, I blanched out in the lobby even before I go into Dr. Abduls office. When I open the external entryway, the impact of cool air from the forced air system smacks me in the face making me shudder everywhere. I stroll in and add my name to the rundown on the sign in sheet. The secretary saw me and will inform me as to whether the specialist will be prepared in a moment. While I sat tight in the lounge area for the dental collaborator in her blue uniform to get out my name, I take a gander at the fish in the huge blue tank toward the edge of the room quietly while I stand by. At that point I turned and saw a photograph collection sitting on a foot stool. I got it just to see pictures of rotting teeth and gums. I immediately shut the book and shiver at the idea as I turned my tongue over my teeth and checking them if theyre OK. The medical attendant called my name and I entered the inward office and sit in the earthy colored calfskin seat taking a gander at all the glossy treated steel hardware. As I plunk down the brilliant overhead light, at that point I understood, its my turn. Yet, at that point Charlie hopped with energy and disclosed to me the news. I was shocked there in second. So then the day at last desired me. I was prepared, more prepared than any other time in recent memory. The organization gave me a top of the line pass to chilies and it was my first time on top notch on any plane and I couldnt hold on to step in that plane. I was truly eager to go!! As you realize this is my first outing to South America, I dont comprehend what life is there like. As I got in the plane the lady treated me with completely regard and they praised me for winning, I had a dazzling dinners and it was entirely agreeable. As we at long last arrived in Chile, I snatched my gather pack and as I ventured out of the plane hearing the leader saying thank you for flying Singapore carriers I looked outside and the view was stunning, it resembled another world to Ive never been, the climate was warm, agreeable and clamoring, when I was there I had a sense of safety and the hues were lively and I never experienced to go mountain strolling for so long. The aides welcomed me and demonstrated a smidgen of Santiago, Chile and took me to the between mainland lodging. We should begin the following morning however I needed to see the city first. Worldwide Marketplace EssayAs I got the water bottle out of my pack and began drinking it out of nowhere I saw this diamondback creeping towards what's more me with its tail seemed like a South American instrument. I was truly stunned and stunned. I couldnt move! The other guider instructed me to remain peaceful and quiet, and not to fear it, as he crept gradually towards the snake exceptionally calm and straightly snatched the snake very quick and discarded it. It was a wonderful snake with its skin striped with chestnut earthy colored, emerald green and coal black. I stood up and proceeded with my excursion. At the point when I was strolling along my excursion, I felt so loose and loosen up as the air and the climate started to change into a cheerful and comfortable sort. Furthermore, I generally overlook my regular issues I had. While I was strolling I had a sense of safety, energized and invigorated all simultaneously. I have encountered the excellence of nature and I discover it profoundly elevating. Following three hours of strolling I halted onto a territory that was so extraordinary and one of a kind then the most recent few hours I have been strolling. It was a region, which was so vivid, dynamic, brilliant and wonderful, and a similar time. I arrived at my sack and got out my water jug, and I drank for a piece. As I was drinking I strolled a couple of paces towards and I plunked down on a precarious, level stone. I glanced around extremely astonished why this was not quite the same as different spots. I glanced around once more, I was encircled by loads of palm trees surrounding me and on the privilege of me there was a little lake, and on the left of me there was delicate, light chestnut earthy colored san and the climate was protected, amazing and exuberant. The spot was exceptionally wonderful. I simply made sense of that I simply finished my excursion. So one of the guiders came up to me gradually and said that my excursion have finished and we ought to prepare in light of the fact that the jeep is going ahead its way. So I wet myself in the lake and I dried myself with the towel and I set everything back in my sack. You can hear the sound of the breeze and falcons flying about in the sky. At last the jeep came the guiders went in and I remained there outside to have a brief look at the mountain one final time, at that point I went in the jeep and we drove off. We drove passed a little timberland where the climate is complex and you hear the hints of creatures, for example, monkeys then we came to another city. I was exceptionally ravenous and amazingly worn out so when we arrived at the lodging I straightly went to the café, after all the staff of the organization who gave me this outing to Chile praise me in my endeavor, and I ate all these zesty food however I overlooked what theyre called again yet it was delightful. After that I went up I m my room in the inn and dozed immediately. Mountain strolling is exceptionally solid yet can be tiring. I prescribe this excursion to individuals who gets worried in their works effectively and individuals who gets numerous issues ordinary so he/she can escape from it since this excursion will be extremely unwinding and will cause them to loosen up and comfort them. Or on the other hand to individuals who needs to accomplish something other than what's expected in their life and need something exceptionally courageous. I had a great time in this outing and I felt like an out going sort of individual, which I am definitely not. I wish you were there with me so we both would have some good times together. I adored this excursion since I felt RELAXED!! All the best, Hussein

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams

The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams The truth behind 100% pass rates in final exams “Those wanting a guaranteed qualification are advised to apply to Durham, Worcester, Oxford, Liverpool, Surrey, Bath, University of East London, Abertay, Arts University Bournemouth, Sunderland or Edinburgh”. So says The Times in a recent piece about the institutions most likely to award degrees to students taking the final exams of their degrees. But it’s not intended as a recommendation: the newspaper is “naming and shaming” these institutions â€" which include prestigious Oxbridge Universities and Russell Group members â€" for not failing a single final-year student. The report cites not only these eleven universities, at which 100% of final-year students were awarded a degree, but also a number of others â€" again including elite Russell Group institutions â€" where at least 99% of students who entered their final exams were awarded a degree. Is having every student pass a bad thing? The 100% pass rate feeds into the ongoing debate about university standards. Standards are, perhaps inevitably, pretty much always deemed to be falling, especially by those who are critical of universities and Higher Education in the UK. Recent stories about the rising proportion of undergraduates achieving First Class degrees were similarly interpreted as indicative of falling standards. Vigilance about the standards of university degrees is, in and of itself, a healthy enough thing, especially given the trend in recent years to position universities as service providers and their students as “customers”: given the cost of a university education these days it’s reasonable to assume that anything less than a degree at the end of it all would result in dissatisfied “customers”! Are students really getting an easier ride these days? Perhaps, but it’s extremely difficult to tell for certain, and it’s not as simple as the bald statistic makes it sound. For one thing, the structure of degree courses has changed far more than the “falling standards” narrative acknowledges, as have approaches to teaching. The article in The Times measures its 100% pass rate stat against students taking their “finals” â€" but for many if not most university courses this is an outdated concept. Where once final-year summative exams â€" or “finals” â€" taken at the very end of a three- or four-year course determined the classification of the entire degree, these days many degree courses are entirely modular. Marks for exams taken at the end of the first semester of the second year are weighted equally with those taken in the final semester of the course. This has several implications. Firstly, there’s nothing particularly special about “finals” in many institutions: like any other exams, they reflect performance in the modules taken that semester. Poor performance in these exams doesn’t necessarily mean a poor performance overall. Secondly, modular degrees give students and their instructors a far better sense of their progress than traditional degree programmes where the final exams were the be-all and end-all. Failing students are identified much earlier and can be targeted for additional support, placed on probation, or, in rare circumstances, advised to retake a year or drop out altogether. It might once have been possible for a student to muddle through three years of lectures without learning the information and skills they needed to obtain their degree â€" and for this only to become apparent after they failed their finals. But these days, if a university’s academic assessment and pastoral care structures are up to the job, virtually no students should be entered into their “finals” if there’s a reasonable chance they’ll fail to obtain a degree. A duty of care It’s in the interests of everyone in society â€" from students to employers to the universities themselves â€" that confidence in Higher Education standards remains high. But allowing students to enter their final round of exams without being virtually assured of obtaining a degree doesn’t necessarily signify rigour; in fact, it arguably indicates the opposite: that universities have missed the opportunity to identify those in need of additional support, and failed in their duty to provide a quality educational experience to those students. Perhaps, instead of viewing low failure rates with suspicion, we should celebrate them as a sign that universities are closely monitoring the progress of their students and safeguarding their interests. And maybe, just maybe, you should read that list in The Times as a recommendation after all… You may also like... Universities’ financial prospects: should we be worried? Its high time universities move past BTEC snobbery Why is London attracting so many fresh graduates? degreesexamsfinal yearoxbridgerussell groupstudent news

Thursday, June 25, 2020

Duty of care-negligence - Free Essay Example

Under the duty of care, there is another test used by the court in determining whether there is negligence in carrying out the duty of care which lead to the other person suffering from the damage as a consequences of the act. The test said in the above is called the Caparo( composite) test. This test is based on the principle established in the case of Caparo Industries plc V Dickman. In the case, Lord Bridge acknowledged that the lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s tendency had been reverted to the traditional categories of recognizable situations in the imposition of a duty of care. In accordance to this principle, instead of the plaintiff needing to establish a duty, proving that his situation falls squarely into any of the recognized categories, the plaintiff only needs to established that the duty of care arises in his situation because it accords with existing policy and decisions in other comparable cases.[1] The general rule of this principle is that a plaintiff who suffers physical damage to his property will not have difficulty in establishing a duty of care. This situation is seen in the case of Marc Rich Co AG V British Rock Marine Co Ltd. In the case, it involve a vessel belonging to the first defendant carrying the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cargo. In the mid of the voyage, the ship had developed a crack. The first defendant called in the marine classificat ion society, the third defendant, which then surveyed the ship and eventually gave the ship a certified proof to continue its voyage. Unfortunately, after a several days, the ship sank, in consequence the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cargo which worth about six million pound was lost. Part of the sum was recovered from the first defendant, the balance is claimed from the third defendant.[2] In the case above, it is not difficult to see that the surveyor had acted in negligent while inspecting the ship before giving the green light for the ship to continue its voyage. It is also foreseeable in the case that the said act could possibly cause the ship to sink, causing physical damage suffered by the plaintiff after his goods was lost. But in this case, the House of Lord, in a majority judgment founded that the third defendant did not owe any duty of care, this decision is according to policy factors, primarily insurance plays a bigger role. As a result from the case, the principl e was established in the development, from its establishment the English court are more cautious when faced with cases involving facts showing duty of care and facts not showing the duty of care. By referring to the case of March Rich, it is decided that in cases like this there are three factors that must be fulfilled to established a duty of care. First is the damage is reasonably foreseeable. Second, is there a close and direct relationship of proximity between the plaintiff and the defendant and third, the circumstances as a whole must be such that it is fair, just and reasonable for the imposition of a duty of care. Under the principle, it uses the foreseeable concept to measure, the court will determine whether or not the plaintiff is a foreseeable victim or not. This concept also involve the use of proximity between the parties, is it close enough to satisfy the proximity that is needed to establish the duty of care. In Malaysia, the application of this test is straight forward, in ascertaining the existence of the duty of care. For the first element, an early example of its usage in Malaysia is in the case of Sathu V Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co Ltd. In this case, it involve nineteen heads of cattle which belonged to the plaintiff strayed onto the estate of the defendant while grazing. The estate had been sprayed with sodium arsenate a few days before and resulting in the death of the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cattle grazing in the area of the estate. In this case, the plaintiff alleged the breach of common law duty to a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"neighbourà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ committed by the defendant under the principle from the case of Donoghue V Stevenson. It was held that the principle cannot be apply in this case because the death of the cattle was not foreseeable because the defendant does not know that the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cattle would stray into the estate.[3] The above case is used in the test that the circumstances must be just an d reasonable, it is the same as in the case of Lok Kwan Moi Ors V Ramli B. Jamil Ors Government of Malaysia. The case involve the arrest of fisherman who are gambling, they all jumped into the river but was arrested in upon reaching the land, but one particular fisherman having difficulty swimming was drown. It was alleged that before the drowning another fisherman was trying to help but was chased off by the police, in the circumstances it was thought to be foreseeable for any reasonable man to foreseen that the fisherman would likely drown. It was held that the policeman and the Government were liable to the death of the fisherman. [4] For the second element, it involve the use of the neighbor principle as used in the case of Donoghue V Stevenson and used in the case of Sathu V Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co Ltd. This can be seen also on the case of Abdul Malik bin Idrus Ors V Tan Jee Han. This case uses the neighbor principles in proving the duty of care of the first appella nt towards the respondent had been breached. This can also be seen in the case of Syarizan bin Sudirman Ors V Abdul Rahman bin Bukit Anor. In this case, it involve the plaintiff receiving injury caused by a pursuing policeman, kicking his motorcycle in order to force him to stop, which caused him to crash and sustain serious injury. The question before the court was whether the policeman had breach his duty of care towards the plaintiff when he kicked the motorcycle, the court in this case found in favor of the plaintiff that the policeman did not exercise care and skill as was reasonable in all circumstances.[5] In the two cases of Abdul Malik bin Idrus Ors V Tan Jee Han and Syarizan bin Sudirman Ors V Abdul Rahman bin Bukit Anor it could also be used in determining the existence of the third element, which is whether the circumstances as whole must be such that it is fair, just and reasonable for the imposition of a duty of care. For example in the two cases, the court established in what situation is the policeman is liable to have breach their duty of care and when do the duty of care is impose on them. There is also questions raised, whether in using this principle does it apply in cases involving damages which is purely economic in nature. In the case of Arab-Malaysian Finance Bhd V Steven Phoa Cheng Loon Ors, it involves the collapse of several block after a continuos rainfall for ten days many lost their lives as a consequence to the collapse. There were three blocks of apartment involve in this litigation, the 2nd and 3rd block brought an action against ten defendants because the first block caused the collapse of the two blocks. Some defendant was dismissed, there is only a few defendant left the local authority, the owner, the engineer, another owner of the adjacent land and the person who provides management services. In this case it did not refer to the case of Uniphone Sdn Bhd V Chin Boon Lit Anor in determining the duty where the loss occasionally was purely economic, in this case it was thought that the foreseeability test and neighbor principle was sufficient in proving the duty of care towards the plaintiffs.[6] [1] [1990] 1 All ER 568, HL [2] [1995] 3 All ER 307, HL [3] [1961] MLJ 318 [4] [1984] 1 MLJ 46 [5] [2010] 8 MLJ 530 [6] [2003] 2 AMR 6, CA