Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Wedding tourism in our country has becoming popular as more foreigners and local tourist are taking interest and start to recognize this tourism field. Nowadays, lots of visitors start to take interest in the grand wedding functions which held in attractive and tourism place as well as at Historical Places and magnificent place of our country.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a well-known fact that our country are based from numerous type of races with its colorful culture and traditions. These tradition and rituals of Malaysian reflect the rich cultural heritage of our nation.Ones of the tradition that can generate high income and have a bright chance to be develops in the future is Wedding Tourism which is gaining popularity due to the distinctive celebrations and religious ceremonies that are held in the course of a wedding.Though there are grand and magnificent weddings conducted in tourism and magnificent places in our country includes at the beaches of Malaysia. All kind of Malaysian various races w edding have recently become a hit among tourist around the world.Wedding tourism in our country offers lot more than just the wedding rituals which according to its own culture and religions. Along with the wedding ceremonies, tourist and visitors can enjoy and get a firsthand experience of the wedding preparations that are done by both parties. Besides, wedding tourism in Malaysia also helps tourist in this country to explore the hidden facts of Malaysian wedding and enjoy the warmth and hospitality of our peoples that are well known for their warmness and smile.Realizing this potential in wedding tourism towards the future, our government also take a step ahead in promoting and encourage this industry to enhance its wider around the world. Thus, lots of accommodations such as excellent facilities in hotels, better transportation, mouthwatering cuisine and many more are integrated part of the packages for wedding. The special wedding tour package also helps to get insight into the life style of our peoples and offers an enjoyable moments that can stand to be memories for aÃ lifetimes. Wedding in Malaysia Wedding tourism in our country has becoming popular as more foreigners and local tourist are taking interest and start to recognize this tourism field. Nowadays, lots of visitors start to take interest in the grand wedding functions which held in attractive and tourism place as well as at Historical Places and magnificent place of our country.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a well-known fact that our country are based from numerous type of races with its colorful culture and traditions. These tradition and rituals of Malaysian reflect the rich cultural heritage of our nation.Ones of the tradition that can generate high income and have a bright chance to be develops in the future is Wedding Tourism which is gaining popularity due to the distinctive celebrations and religious ceremonies that are held in the course of a wedding.Though there are grand and magnificent weddings conducted in tourism and magnificent places in our country includes at the beaches of Malaysia. All kind of Malaysian various races w edding have recently become a hit among tourist around the world.Wedding tourism in our country offers lot more than just the wedding rituals which according to its own culture and religions. Along with the wedding ceremonies, tourist and visitors can enjoy and get a firsthand experience of the wedding preparations that are done by both parties. Besides, wedding tourism in Malaysia also helps tourist in this country to explore the hidden facts of Malaysian wedding and enjoy the warmth and hospitality of our peoples that are well known for their warmness and smile.Realizing this potential in wedding tourism towards the future, our government also take a step ahead in promoting and encourage this industry to enhance its wider around the world. Thus, lots of accommodations such as excellent facilities in hotels, better transportation, mouthwatering cuisine and many more are integrated part of the packages for wedding. The special wedding tour package also helps to get insight into the life style of our peoples and offers an enjoyable moments that can stand to be memories for aÃ lifetimes.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The spinsterhood where you do not want to get out of the car. Are people more likely to be a victim of crime in these neighborhoods? The spatial syntax theory supports the idea that you are more likely to be a victim of a crime in certain areas (Nubian, 2006), and the broken window theory of crime volitionally supports the Idea that people are more likely to commit crimes If they think no one cares. Small crimes can lead to bigger crimes in areas where people are used to disorder and a lack of consequences for the smaller crimes (Keeling & Wilson, 1982).The broken window theory was introduced in a 1982 article titled broken windows by James Q. Wilson and George L. Keeling. In the article they discuss psychologist Philip Sombrero's experiment with an abandoned car. The experiment was done to show how even good people that usually do not commit crimes will commit a crime under certain circumstances (Keeling & Wilson, 1982). Zanzibar did many experiments that involved elements of good p eople doing evil things. He may be best known for his Stanford prison experiment, where he wanted to explore situational variables on human behavior.The prison experiment remains one of the most well-known psychological experiments (Rubberiest, 2013). Zanzibar served as the president of the American Psychiatric Association in 2002. My great respect for Summarizes work got me Interested In the broken window theory. The broken window experiment showed how even in a nice neighborhood where people would not usually commit crimes they did vandalize and damage the abandoned car after Zanzibar broke the window on the car. The experiment set the stage for the broken window theory.According to the broken window theory crime will be more prevalent in areas that are run down and uncared for. If a building has one broken window that has not been fixed it gives the impression that no one cares enough to fix the window. When people think that no one cares they will break more windows in the build ing Just for fun. As the neighborhood deteriorates and gets more vandalism the more crimes will be committed in that area. According to Keeling and Winslow community deterioration and crime are inextricably linked (Keeling & Wilson, 1982).New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani was motivated by the broken window theory to clean up New York. Together with the chief of police Willie Britton they took a very strict stance on graffiti, pan handling, prostitution, and other petty crimes. They proved that by cleaning up the neighborhoods and taking care of the petty crimes it had a big effect on the bigger crimes as well. There were 2,801 murders were committed 1994 the year that Giuliani took office and by 2003 the murder rate was down to 537, the lowest murder rate since 1963 (Adams, 2006).Another study done by a college student on the broken window theory in 2011 also produced positive results (US Fed News Service, Including US State News, 2011). The student cleaned up neighborhoods near campus t o decrease the crime rate and to test out the validity of he broken window theory. The work that she did had a positive impact on the residents of the areas that she cleaned up. Opposition to the broken window theory state that there is no real evidence to prove that this theory is valid.A main point that they make is that the lack of crime in the areas that have been cleaned up and have been policed more regularly may be due to other things and not Just the policing and upkeep of the neighborhood. While the opposing people do recognize there is a 4 correlation between the areas that have had increased policing and more upkeep ND the reduction in crime, they are quick to point out that correlation does not indicate causation (Miller, 2001). The main weakness in the broken window theory is that it is very difficult to prove the theory.I think that the opposing side of the broken window theory is not very strong. Much of the criticism takes the theory too literally expecting that Just fixing the windows and graffiti will stop murder. However, the theory is more about how once an area starts to deteriorate with petty crimes it can quickly turn into an area where more serious crimes are committed. Once law abiding citizens' start feeling unsafe in an area they leave the area and while the area is becoming less populated by law abiding citizens it will gradually become more populated by criminals.Anyone can be a victim of crime however, there are things that people can sometimes do that can increase the chances that they will be unable to fix it and leave it parked in the parking lot with the broken window it could increase the chances of someone trying to steal the radio out of the car. I experienced factorization of property crime on two occasions in my life and looking ace on it after learning about the broken window theory I now see that there were things I could have done to decrease my chances of being a victim.The first time I was a victim of property crime I had left my car parked in my work parking lot for two weeks while I was waiting to get the car repaired. It had engine trouble and I thought it would be k to leave it in the parking lot. The car sat there for weeks before someone broke the window and tried to steal the radio. The second time I was a victim of property crime I had moved into an apartment complex in a city I had lived n for years. I Just moved a few blocks over from where I had been living so I thought that it was obviously a good neighborhood and I did not even look for any signs of trouble.I was 5 used to living in the surrounding neighborhoods with homeowners who took good care of their property however, the apartment complex was different people did not take care of their property left broken down cars in the parking lot many of the cars were damaged with busted windows and accident damage to them. I did not pay attention to the cars or the parking lot when I decided to move in. Within weeks of moving into the a partment my car was vandalized and my daughter's bike was stolen off of the back patio.I believe that the broken window theory does explain the amount of property damage and vandalism of that apartment complex that I lived in. To remain safe and not continue to be a victim of crime I moved out of that neighborhood. People in general want to be safe and not become victims of crime if I had understood the theory of spatial syntax and the broken window theory at the time I moved into that neighborhood I would probably paid more attention to certain details and avoided the situation by choosing a different apartment complex.I am not different in the way that I moved to get away from crime many people alter their lifestyle as a result of fear of crime. Many people now live in gated communities (Nubian, 2006). People often feel safer in gated communities and in areas where they feel that people care more about their property. When people feel safer they are more present in the streets and therefore criminals would be less likely to be active in these areas. There are areas that are not kept up where the sense of community is rower that crime is more prevalent in.I can see the broken window theory active in society because of this. People who live or spend a lot of time in these areas are more likely to be victims of crime. I support the broken window theory and believe that communities should be more involved in the condition of their neighborhoods and that would reduce the crime rate. When people do not take care of their property they are more likely to become a victim of crime. In that same manner of thinking 6 overlooked or go unpunished that can lead to bigger more violent crimes.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Anxiety Among Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy REVIEW OF LITERATURE The review of literature in a research report is a summary of current knowledge about a particular practice- problem. (Nancy (b) patients with a moderate level of treatment anxiety before radiation therapy reported no change; and (c) patients with low levels of anxiety reported significant increase. The study concludes that patients who were either low or high in state anxiety were also characterized by more anger or hostility than patients with moderate level of treatment anxiety. Hans Geinitz, FrankB (2003) conducted a study to evaluate fatigue 2.5ÃâÃ years after radiation treatment in patients with breast cancer and to assess its relation to pre- and immediate post-treatment fatigue values. Totally 41 patients were included in this study whose fatigue value was evaluated during the time of radiation therapy. Out of these 41 patients, 38 were alive and free of cancer 2.5ÃâÃ years after radiation therapies, received the Fatigue Assessment Questionnai re, a visual analog scale on fatigue intensity as well as on cancer-related distress scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Health Survey per mail. All 38 patients returned their questionnaires. The values were compared to pretreatment and immediate post-treatment levels. Cancer-related distress values correlated with the patient fatigue scores. Results showed that Patients with functional impairment had slightly higher fatigue values. Patients with pretreatment elevated fatigue, anxiety or depression levels were at high risk for chronic fatigue.
Riordan Manufacturing - Case Study Example Riordan Manufacturers has to think of other ways to ensure that timely delivery or customer access is kept and goods delivered to the quantity set by the company. This document outlines ways Riordan Manufacturing can distribute its products even with the Huffman Trucking on the slacking process. The five-year contract entered with Huffman Trucking restricts Riordan Manufacturing from exiting the contract before its expiry; they therefore have to continue with them even with their delays costing them. Riordan still pressure Huffman on the delivery process in a different way. They have to set a certain limit of shipments which must be met by the Huffman Trucking in a given period. Failure to meet this limit, the company can sue Huffman or even exit the contract. This would keep Huffman on toes and ensure that they transport the goods to the required destinations in time. Riordan can also put up on distribution retails all over United States. This will ensure customers need not purchase their goods from the main company but can just visit the nearest retail and demand what they want. Self service can also be implemented by the company (Kotler, 2009). Customers can purchase the goods and personally come for them from the company premises. This will even save the company the expenses of having to ship the goods to the customers. Direct mailing is also another method which can be used by Riordan to ensure customers receive their goods in time. Riordan needs to acquire customersÃ¢â¬â¢ direct addresses which will ensure access by the company. The company can also use wholesale agreements to ensure their customers are reached (Kotler, 2009). The wholesalers come for the goods from the premises and Riordan only receives the final price after the wholesalers have deducted their costs. This will reduce the time taken by the company to reach their customers. Riordan Manufacturers
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Terrorism - Essay Example I would recommend to the President to halt all such surveillance in the territory of a sovereign state, because to continue to do so will only escalate the already tense situation between the two states. If, on the other hand, this event happened over international waters, then the president should make an extremely strong statement of condemnation to the Iranian government for the provocation. Furthermore, he should warn the Iranians that if a similar action takes place again, then the United States will not only tighten the sanctions that have been placed on Iran, it might also choose to make retaliatory attacks. Perhaps by doing this, the Iranians might discontinue their unprovoked attacks, fearing the American military might. However, the President should choose his words exceedingly carefully before making such a statement, because certain words, when used, tend to make people respond in the opposite way. If he were to make a statement that sounds threatening, for example, the Iranians might instead of reacting in fear, choose to respond in defiance. This would eventually lead to a war between these two states, something that will totally destabilize the Gulf
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Ehtno-Drama (Drama Creation) Baed on ELL(English Language Learner) Interview - Term Paper Example He had to Google maps to know where to go and master the Google directions keenly not to get lost. This was because the one who brought him to America went back immediately because of problems that arose immediately after they took off from the Airport. On asking him on the initial difficulties he faced in America he said that he had problems in the English language which posed a barrier in communication. He describes an incident when he developed health issues and reported to the hospital in New Jersey. He was unable completely to communicate with the nurse at the reception. This made the nurse to confront him with a racist language. Telling him, Ã¢â¬Å"You immigrant why come to America and you do not know how to speak English?Ã¢â¬ Do you think we are terrorists like you? This he said made him to give up on the medication and go home. Lucky enough the health complication healed after some days without ant treatment. He further told me that from that day he enrolled for English lessons at a certain college in New Jersey so that in the future he could not face other discriminative encounters like that. He even stopped wearing his Arab clothes and wore like Americans to conceal identity on suspecting eyes. Further, on the question of a facing a different culture and how he overcome it he told me that despite the cultural differences between Qatar citizens and the Americans he coped well with it. He said that the American foods were different to theirs. Even living styles of the Americans were very different in terms of clothing, entertainment and interactions. He said that he observed that mostly the White Americans despise the Black Americans something that does not happen in Qatar. He said that the Qatar people are so friendly and welcoming to fellow citizens and foreigners. He had no problem with coping with American culture because with time he adjusted very well and become part of the citizens by making of many American friends who taught him
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Tell-Tale Heart and A Rose for Emily, gothic but with a twist - Essay Example in the backdrop of 19th century England, but as we progress through the story, we find certain unmistakable Gothic elements that are present in every layer. It is not merely the dark, brooding, rather claustrophobic atmosphere of the backdrop itself, there is something of the Gothic darkness in the characters too. Like his successor Austen who so successfully interwove the setting with the mindset of the characters, Faulkner uses the house in which Mrs. Emily Grierson lived to portray the working of her mind. On the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tale Tell HeartÃ¢â¬ by Edgar Allan Poe is the usual uncanny supernatural fare that Poe is known and loved for. Yet, what strikes as similar in those two vastly different stories is the treatment of the backdrops. In both the stories, we find that the setting in which they are portrayed does not exactly affect, but rather reflect the demeanor and lifestyle of the protagonists. It is rather difficult to establish the Gothic-ness of the backdrop of Faulkners story. True, the house of Miss Emily Grierson is palatial and reminiscent of lost splendor, derelict and almost haunted by the lone resident, but the real darkness and epic grandeur that befits a truly Gothic tale is missing. The same can be said about Poe Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ too: it certainly lacks the grandeur that is expected in the setting of an epic tale, the story having unfolded in a common dwelling house in London. However, what the stories lack in the way of a backdrop, they make up in the narrative and characterization. The characters are authentically Gothic, with all the madness and darkness and the rest of the Gothic paraphernalia. A perusal of both the stories give the impression that the settings are
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Business Planning - franchise KFC - Essay Example KFC will introduce a range of edible coffee cups and food items like double down dog in London and hopes to launch them in the newly set franchise. Their coffee cups will be infused with various aromas such as coconut sun cream, fresh grass and wild flowers. They plan to introduce buckets of comfort food along with new ketchup made of marshmallows and lemonade. These newly introduced products are supposed to satisfy the demand of the local residents and result in increased sales (Lafontaine and Shaw, 2005). Their new product ranges are supposed to come with many health benefits for people. Their innovative range of products will fall under 400 calories and below 15 grams of fat so that even if people continue eating their foodstuffs at a regular basis that will serve to be a healthy choice for them. These food ranges will contain no trans fats and will contain adequate amount of calories required to remain healthy (Stier, 2004). Their combo meals will come under healthy diet plans and will serve best in taking care of health of their consumers. These newly invented unique recipes will not compromise the quality and will be made of sustainable materials. To gain a competitive advantage, the company will focus on expanding their business and increase its market share. Use of renewable resources will also differentiate the business to some extent. Majority of competitors tend to use plastic materials for their packaging. KFC will use edible coffee cups which will generate less waste and will confirm to be environment healthy (Tsai, Shih and Chen, 2007). It will develop new food products with great taste and value and also at the same time maintain health standards which will satisfy the expectations of the health concerned people too (Sivadas and Baker-Prewitt, 2000). The price of the new products will be reasonable and competitive with other neighbouring restaurants offering chicken menu. Also by offering unique introductory discounts, the new franchise will
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
For development of home automation industry - Research Proposal Example The customers will react positively by purchasing given products. The system designed by the firm should ensure security within given parameters is enhanced and at the same time reduced cost incurred while providing security to given homestead. The management should focus in providing products that will enhance security and simplify then manner in which individuals interact with their environments. This should keep in mind the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate goal of maximizing profits while ensuring customer satisfaction. There are social considerations while offering a given service and the firm should consider integrating social concepts to their profit maximizing goals. The project should be rolled immediately to avoid new entries into the market that would jeopardize the viability of the product. The market changes thus the firm should utilize the available opportunities within the market to attain their objectives. The long term goals would realized once the firm overcomes the first stages of the project. The acceleration of home automation would depend on the nature in which firms present their product to the market. The proposal would indicate the means the firm would use to ensure satisfaction. Affordability and simplicity of home-automated devices has made it possible for many homes to adapt the system in their day-to-day application. There is the connection between device usage and its immediate environment. Designers have managed to integrate various applications to portable devices such as the Smartphone and tables. There is need to integrate various technological appliances in order to simplify life. Concern of potential users will be whether the systems could affect negatively on their way of life. Most devices concentrate on the simplicity and compatibility of a given device but ignore the actual purpose of any automated device. The major concern of automated devices is the cost that is associated with its usage and installation. Users
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The role of His Highness Shiekh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nhayan in the formation of the UAE - Essay Example While the cities are growing at a rapid pace, the economies are also boosting, resulting in employment and social prospects for the people. Amongst the developed nations of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of it. United Arab Emirates is a legitimate alliance that came into formulation in the last quarter of 1971, consists of seven emirates that are Ã¢â¬Å"Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras al-Khaimah, and FujairahÃ¢â¬ (Miller, pp. 35-79, 2004). UAE is located in Southwest Asia and its border connects with Qatar to its west side, Oman lies to its north and east and Saudi Arabia is at its south and west part. Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Iran connect the sea boundary with UAE (Miller, pp. 35-79, 2004). Abu Dhabi is considerably the biggest city of the federation amongst all the other emirates and is the capital of United Arab Emirates, which is the focal point of political and industrial functioning. Ajman is the smallest emirate of UAE and su bsumes the nominal area of the whole. A mixture of topography is present in UAE. More than half of the entire area of it is a barren region and desert, nevertheless, this country comes under the category of one of the most urbanized, developed and beautiful places in the world. Distinct and divergent sceneries, overwhelming sandbanks, rich oases, sheer and steep rock-strewn mountains and fruitful prairie are all geographical factors that highlight the beauty of UAE (Miller, pp. 35-79, 2004). UAE is a state, which has made the use of the modern technologies to its fullest and has included its name in one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fastest growing states. UAE not only worked on expansion of the emirate but it paid scores of attention in developing its tourism due to its classy infrastructure, thus, putting efforts on building numerous shopping malls, high-class hotels and restaurants and holiday resorts. With its widespread and beautiful sandy beaches, diverse sceneries, deserts, diverse s ports activities, shopping, resorts and captivating customary traditional culture makes UAE a perfect and an ideal place for a holiday. Since bygone eras, geological location is of utmost importance as it makes UAE easily accessible to different parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Indian Ocean has a brawny weight on the climatic conditions of UAE due to the reason that it touches the borders of Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, therefore, the atmospheric conditions of UAE comes under the dry, scorched, and parched tropical zone. Due to this reason, UAE experiences intense warmth and heat that comes with humidity in the summer seasons particularly in the coastal areas. The temperature deviations between the coastal regions, deserts, and hilly areas observe a clear and visible pattern. The nights of UAE to some extent are chilly than that of the daytime weather (Rashid & Nel, pp. 25-55, 2001). Despite of the fact that UAE is a country that has a president and has come into formation, it e ncompasses neither a lawful kingdom or absolute monarchy, nor a democracy. It comprises of seven separate kingdoms, which comes under governance by seven different authorities, each having its own supremacy and domination. Though the rulers of all the federations select a president, the ultimate power remains in the hands of these monarchs called emirs/sheikhs. A constitution of UAE do not guide the emirs as to
The force you exert Essay The target of this investigation is to find out how the force you exert on pulling back a rubber band, which will in turn catapult an empty margarine tub, affect the distance which the margarine tub will travel. We will not be changing any of the other factors of the experiment, only the force and extension of the rubber band, for that is the variable which we are investigating. Prediction I predict that the more force you exert, the further the margarine tub will travel, however, I think that the force and distance relationship will not increase evenly, instead it would first increase rapidly, then the increase will be less significant, and then rise slightly. Scientific reason for prediction Rubber is not a material which obeys Hookes law and its extension doesnt increase uniformly. Some elastic materials are intended to absorb energy. The greater the force that is applied, more the rubber band is extended. The force in the rubber band is stored as potential energy which is reverted into kinetic energy once I have let go of it, this energy is transferred into the margarine tub as kinetic energy and therefore it moves. A stretched or compressed elastic band is capable of doing work when released. As the rubber band is released, the force that it exerts diminishes with distance. Equipment Ã Rubber band Ã Chair/stool Ã Rulers Ã An empty margarine tub Ã A newton meter that goes up to 10N Procedure Ã Loop the rubber band around the front legs of a chair. Place a margarine tub at the centre of it. Ã Place 2 metre rulers in a row from the position of the margarine tub. Hook a newton metre on to the centre of the rubber band and pull it back in accordance with the required force. Ã Release newton metre. Ã Measure and record the distance travelled by the tub. Ã Repeat for the other forces. Diagram Fig. 1 Front view of apparatus. Fig. 2 Side view of apparatus Fair test We made sure that it was a fair test by the following conditions: All tests were carried out on the same surface to minimise variations in friction, etc. All tests were carried out with the same rubber band; elasticity, energy storage potential, etc, may be different in various rubber bands. Ã Use the same margarine tub for all tests or the mass, size and shape may vary. Ã Always place the tub in the same position at the start of each experiment. Ã Make sure that the newton meter is always hooked at the centre of the rubber band to avoid directional change of the tub after catapulting. Ã Always newton meter around the same amount of rubber, eg, if the rubber band is looped around the stool, hook it around both lengths: 2 Table to show increase in distances From the average points, the graph shows a generally straight line of increase. As the force exerted increases, so does the distance which the margarine tub travels. On average, the increase from each previous (i. e. one less newton) experiment is 18. 77cm although there is a rather large difference in the range between experiments. The range of the largest increase and the smallest is 21. 4cm; the smallest increase being 7N to 8N, which was only 7cm and the largest was from 5N to 6N; which was 28. 4cm. However, ignoring any anomalies, you can see that the increase in differences between distances are normally larger in the second half of the experiments with the larger forces, than the in the first half with the smaller forces. One thing I noticed was the relationship between the distance travelled and the force exerted, there seemed to be a strong pattern forming; the distance of a certain force multiplied by 3 is more or less equal to the distanced travelled by the margarine tub at a force that is twice the size of the primary force. See Table 3. Force (N) Distance (cm) 1.Table. 3 The results show a strong relationship between each other, when the force doubles, the distance trebles. I also noticed that the relationship worked very well for the first few values but not so fittingly for the later half (larger forces). This fits well with the Force/Extension law of rubber; if the pattern had occurs throughout the results then it would mean the relationship between force and extension could be plotted as a straight line, but that is not the case. It was especially apparent with the largest results we had gained for each experiment; the line of best fit was a curved line. It does not fit my prediction because I had predicted that the increase of distance would get bigger for the larger forces, but then again, our range of forces wasnt exactly that large either. Rubber is a polymeric substance and does not obey Hookes law, force and extension of rubber is not a straight line and therefore the force that it exerts on the margarine tub does not increase evenly; force diminishes with distance and it remains elastic until it breaks. The energy stored as a material is deformed is represented by the area between the curve and extension axis. See Graph 2. Graph. 2 Graph showing the amount of energy stored in proportion to extension. Energy is never used up and in this case, it is transferred into the margarine tub, which in turn uses this energy to drive its movement. In the law about the conservation of momentum, the resultant force is based on the initial forces of the two bodies, so my results suggest that the more force I exert on pulling back the rubber band, the faster it recoils and therefore increasing its momentum, which in turn gives transfers it onto the stationary margarine tub. My predictions Evaluation I think that my results are reliable because I had repeated each experiment three times and had gotten more or less similar results and it is probably accurate seeing as it fits into a pattern and the results show up as a relatively straight line. Also, we did not move the rulers during the experiment nor the newton meter. There were anomalous results however, possibly caused by collision with dirt on the floor or an off centre impact with the tub; which may result in a change of direction or a different path of projection being taken. If I was to do this experiment again, I would change the following things: Ã The surface on which we were working; we were working in a rather crowded environment and the floor was not clean so there was lots of friction and this could have affected the results. Ã The release mechanism; I think that the way we released the rubber band could have been improved, rather than letting the whole newton meter go, we could just have a detachable part for the device could have dragged across the floor and lengthened time of impact. I would mark out the centre of the tub so that I got it exactly centre each time rather than just estimating. I would mark out the centre of the rubber bad so that I got it exactly centre each time rather than just estimating. In addition to this set of experiments, I would also like to measure the speed of the retraction of the elastic band and the extension of it so that I can incorporate it into some of the other rules of physics and see if it fits with my analysis. If I had those results I could introduce momentum into the analysis as well. I could also test out some larger forces to see if the pattern mentioned in Graph 1 actually applies in this case. The results I had attained did not quite show that pattern but it could have just been a small section of a bigger whole. To measure the speed of the retraction, I would measure the distance of the extension and time the lapse between release of the rubber band and the impact with the tub and divide the distance by the time. See Fig. 4. Fig. 4 Measuring extension.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Sects Cults and Catholic Church Essay The Seventh Day Adventists A sect is a religious group with controversial beliefs, they are groups that break away from a main group/religion and form their own set of beliefs, which differ from the teachings of their parent group. Sects also reject the authority of their parent group. The Seventh Day Adventists is an example of a group that broke away from their parent religions of Millerite Movement and Christianity, to become a sect. New York was the home of the 1840s Millerite movement; Millerites were followers of he teachings of William Miller who prophesied the second coming of Jesus Christ to Earth on the 22nd October 1844. When Jesus did not appear on this day the Millerites dissolved, however from the ashes of one movement came the next as the Seventh Day Adventists arose from the disbanded Millerites. The Seventh Day Adventist Church was officially founded in 1863 and the four founding fgures were Joseph Bates, James White, Ellen G. White and J. N. Andrews. The Church quickly became popular and began to spread worldwide, reaching the shores of New Zealand in the 1880s only shortly after its official establishment back in the States. Today the Seventh Day Adventist Church boasts over 16 million members globally and is the twelfth largest religious body in the world.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Evaluation and the use of concept mapping A concept is a thought, notion, or an abstract idea developed from a situation or particular instance experienced by the learner. Concept mapping consists of diagrams that represent an organized visualization of a concept and its associations or explanations (Novak Gowin, 1984). The use of concept mapping as an educational tool is well established through many branches of learning, including nursing (Schanze GrÃ ¼b-Niehaus, 2008; MacNeil, 2007; Trochim, 2009). Knowledge derived from the nursing process flows remarkably well into the overall design of a concept map. Although similar to other types of knowledge mapping, concept mapping provides a unique structure to gather major concepts together with direct linkages that can be easily visualized and readily examined. Properly prepared concept mapping will allow the learner to venture into all the learning domains, including cognitive, affective, and psychomotor; as well as allow the educator to move from a teacher-centered learning environment to one that is learner-centered. Concept mapping is designed to promote meaningful learning by the student, and allow for an effective formative or summative evaluation method by the educator. As the map is designed, the learner can incorporate new knowledge and reject inaccurate concepts and ideas. The map can also refine knowledge with examples or events, and allow for learning rather than route memorization. For the educator, the concept map can demonstrate the depth of the learners knowledge, and visually depict what the educator must emphasize to complete the learning process. The educator can also rapidly develop further learning opportunities through critical thinking exercises employing proposed changes to existing concept maps. Concept Mapping Theory Concept mapping was developed in 1972 as part of an effort at Cornell University to study the ability of young children to obtain basic scientific concepts. The design was the result of research into the cognitive psychology of learning and the constructivist epistemology. Based on Ausubels theory of learning, concept mapping attempts to emphasize the difference between rote learning and meaningful learning (Novak CaÃ ±as, 2006). Rote learning occurs when new information is added to the learners prior knowledge framework in a random and verbatim fashion. Thus, there is little permanent structure and the new information is rapidly forgotten. In meaningful learning, the new information is linked to the learners prior knowledge framework in a conscious and purposeful manner, thus producing a stable structure and substantial change in the way the learner experiences learning, in other words a conceptual change (National Institute for Science Educations College Level One Team, Universit y of Wisconsin, n.d.). This relationship is shown in Figure 1. Further studies and collaboration on concept mapping use and design, including work at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) in Florida, led to integration of concept mapping with software tools and enabled rapid application of the concept mapping framework to numerous disciplines. Concept Mapping Design In concept mapping, graphical representations are arranged in two predominant manners. First, in the hierarchical fashion, the main topic or question is displayed at the top of the diagram, with inclusive and general concepts near the top and specific, less general concepts arranged in a progressively downward pattern (see Figure 2). The other most common concept map design is in a circular fashion, known as the spider method, with the core topic or idea in the center immediately surrounded by inclusive and general concepts, becoming less specific and more general the further from the core (see Figure 3). Other less common concept mapping methods include the flow path method, where concepts are linked together in a progressively linear fashion to represent a final concept, and the systems method, where input and output concepts are related to the central concept in a production-line style of visualization. Still other methods of concept mapping may be developed to reflect the learners or the educators vision of representation. Typically, concepts are enclosed in boxes, circles, or other geometric shapes with the relationships identified by connecting lines. There are descriptors on the connecting lines that specify the nature of the relationships. Concepts may also be cross-linked to show relationships between domains of knowledge or concepts located in different areas of the map (CaÃ ±as, 2003). Examples, events, or possible solutions can also be included, although these may not be boxed or circled, and the connecting lines can be dashed or dotted to represent an unsubstantiated relationship. Concept Mapping Construction Many methods can be used to construct a concept map. In general, the process will begin as follows: identify a question related to a process or problem; identify the key concepts of the process or problem; rank these concepts in order by identifying the most descriptive and broadest concept then narrowing the descriptions until the most specific concept is listed last; connect the concepts by links, using notations to represent the relationship between the concepts and enable meaning to the linkage; provide examples, including social, personal, and professional examples to clarify the concept or the relationship between concepts; and then continue to link, add examples, and promote the relationships. Some constructors may find it useful to perform this design using post-it notes or index cards, and arranging their ideas on a table or white board to allow for ease of concept ranking, as well the ability to provide easy changes of relationships and rapid visualization of data. The novi ce and expert alike may also use various shapes and colors to designate concepts and subconcepts to make the map clearer. Concept Mapping Software Although concept mapping may be performed with pen, paper, and other non-electronic methods, there are a number of software programs that can be used to provide a variety of concept maps with ranges of detail. In addition to using traditional word-processing programs such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, or Corel WordPerfect or Corel Draw to construct concept maps, specific concept mapping software has been developed. The IHMC, a coalition of Florida universities, has developed Cmap Tools, a robust concept map developer that is free for use (IHMC, 2009). This software also includes a search feature that allows the user to search a wide variety of public Cmap databases for sample concept maps. Other software programs that are specific to concept map construction includes Axon Idea Processor, 3D Topicscape, Inspiration, MindGenious, MindMapper, MindView, Semantica, SmartDraw, Spinscape, and Tinderbox. Several of these software packages are available in multiple programming formats, in addition to several languages, and are free for download. Concept Mapping Example As an example to demonstrate concept-mapping construction, a learner is assigned to research the disease process sepsis, and make a presentation to the class. The learner studies several peer reviewed journal articles (DellaCroce, 2009; Nelson, LeMaster, Plast, Zahner, 2009; Steen, 2009) to obtain the latest information on the disease process, and decides to develop a concept map to explain the pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnostic tests, and treatments for sepsis. The learner develops a table to highlight the ideas that will be outlined on the concept map (see Table 1). Finally, using the CmapTools Knowledge Modeling Kit, Version 5.03, the learner prepares the concept map (see Figure 4). Preparation for Developing a Concept Map Steps Responses 1. Identify a question related to a process or problem What is sepsis? How is it diagnosed? What are the signs and symptoms? How is it treated? 2. Identify the key concepts of the process or problem Invading Microorganism, Sepsis, Inflammatory Response, Organ Failure, Systemic Inflammatory Response, Septic Shock, Treatments, Risk Factors, Infection, Death 3. Rank these concepts in order by identifying the most descriptive and broadest concept, then narrowing the descriptions until the most specific concept is listed last Rank 1) Invading Microorganism 2) Infection 3) Inflammatory Response 4) Systemic Inflammatory Response 5) Sepsis 6) Septic Shock, Severe Sepsis 7) Organ Failure 8) Treatment, Risk Factors, Diagnostic Tests 9) Death 4. Connect the concepts by links, using notations to represent the relationship between the concepts and enable meaning to the linkage Links are Pathophysiology, Leads To, Plus, Can Lead To, Organ Failure 5. Provide examples, including social, personal, and professional examples to clarify the concept or the relationship between concepts Vital Signs, Signs of Organ Failure, Criteria for Determining Sepsis Table 1: Preparation for Developing a Concept Map Concept Mapping Advantages Concept maps provide several advantages over other methods of instruction and evaluation. Concept maps can provide the learners access to a Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ view of the topic of interest, allowing the student to advance to conceptual understanding rather than simple memorization or rote learning. This in turn can provide the student the bases for critical thinking. Concept maps are also easy to construct. Concept maps can also be used as both an instructional strategy for the educator or a learning activity for the learner. As a learning activity, the student can acquire the desired knowledge, performance, and behaviors specified by the curriculum (Caputi Blach, 2008). In situations such as developing continuing education opportunities for existing nursing staff, the use of concept mapping can aid in learning new content through visualization, as many staff prefer visual or kinesthetic learning (Nursing Times, 2009). In cases where students need a platform to reduce anxiety generated prior to testing due to a lack of surety on whether the critical aspects of a clinical lesson were studied, the use of concepts maps can help students organize data, determine complex relationships between patient data and disease processes, and provide the student with an overall picture of the care provided to their patient (Hsu, 2004). Concept Mapping Disadvantages Although concept mapping has many advantages, some disadvantages exist. The wide variety of possible concept map designs can lead to additional evaluation time by the educator as students use different construction techniques. Grading of the differing concept maps may also lead to difficulties unless the educator uses strict grading criteria, such as a detailed assignment rubric. The use of concept mapping may also require a paradigm shift by learners used to only the memorization method of learning. This can sometimes cause difficulty as the learner transitions to the new method of learning. Concept Mapping Use in Learning Domains The cognitive domain includes knowledge and skill development. As cognitive learning occurs, the learner is able to recall facts, patterns, and concepts that will result in the development of intellect. Concept mapping is primarily based on the cognitive domain, as the learner combines concepts into a framework that can develop critical conceptions and critical thinking. The affective domain includes learning that is based on our interaction with our environment through feelings, values, motivations, and attitudes. Concept mapping draws into the affective domain through the construction of the framework, and the use of the environment to provide definition to the concept, and the use of values, attitudes, and feelings to link the concepts together to promote understanding. The psychomotor domain includes learning in the physical domain, such as movement, coordination, and development of motor skills. Psychomotor learning is measured through speed, precision, and techniques in execution. Concept mapping lends well to learning in the psychomotor domain, as the learner physically constructs the concept map using a variety of tools and software. Concept Mapping in Nursing Education Concept mapping is used at several levels in nursing education. By using concept mapping as a learning process in nursing undergraduate education, the educator can develop and refine critical thinking skills in the learner through generating ideas, promoting nonlinear relationships between patient data and complex disease processes, and forcing the learner to visualize the application of nursing theory to nursing practice (Abel Freeze, 2006; Phelps, Wallen, Cusack, Castro, Muehlbauer, et al., 2009). One of the most common uses of concept mapping in nursing is the use of concept mapping to demonstrate the nursing process in care planning. Each component of the nursing process (assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation) can be presented around a disease process; or patient problems can be identified and relationships established between the problems to develop a holistic perspective of patient care (Taylor Wros, 2007). See Figure 5. Concept mapping can also be used effectively in formative, as well as summative assessment. In the formative assessment, the educator can provide a baseline concept map with the major concept listed and several basic relationships identified prior to lecture. The student can use the concept map during the lecture to identify further concepts and relationships, and build upon the baseline concept map to develop their knowledge base. Once the lecture is completed, the educator can use the learners maps to evaluate the effectiveness of their lecture, as well as the effectiveness of the learners attention, by examining the completed concept maps and comparing these maps to the lectures objectives (MacNeil, 2007). The baseline concept map can also be developed by the learner prior to class, such as in a homework assignment, and then completed during lecture as well. Figure 5: Sample care plan concept map (Ackley Ladwig, 2006). In a summative assessment, the educator can require a summative concept map at the end of the course to evaluate overall course objectives, as well as provide the learner with a valuable tool for future reference. Concept Mapping Function in a Learner Centered Environment Concept mapping has been used in both undergraduate and graduate nursing as an analytical tool to organize existing knowledge, synthesize new knowledge, and prioritize information in a logical, visual sequence. Concept mapping develops nonlinear cognitive function that can promote critical thinking and clinical decision making in nurses (Wilgis McConnell, 2008). This makes concept mapping an ideal strategy to switch the classroom from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered environment the learner can develop, adapt, and draw their learning directly from the concept map. Concept maps can be used by learners individually, or in small groups, to simplify complex processes and engage students in the learning process (Harrelson, 2006). As study guides, the concept maps can replace traditional question and answer study handouts with a visual map that can promote meaningful learning opposed to rote memorization (Caputi Blach, 2008). Summary Concept maps represent a collaborative learning strategy developed to take advantage of the difference between rote learning and meaningful learning. Concept maps can be used in all aspects of both undergraduate and graduate nursing, and can be used to facilitate education in all learning domains. As learners begin to analyze clinical data, the learner can begin to develop their critical thinking skills and begin to plan comprehensive care for their patients. As learners begin to study disease processes, the learners can appreciate the effects of interventions directly on patient outcomes. Educators can use concept mapping as a teaching, as well as evaluation strategy. References Abel, W., Freeze, M. (2006, September). Evaluation of concept mapping in an associate degree nursing program. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(9), 356-364. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Ackley, B. J. Ladwig, G.B. (2006). Nursing Diagnosis Handbook, (7th ed.). Missouri: Mosby Elsevier. All, A., Huycke, L. (2007, May). Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(5), 217-224. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. All, A., Huycke, L., Fisher, M. (2003, November). Instructional tools for nursing education: concept maps. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24(6), 311-317. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. CaÃ ±as, A. J. (2003). A summary of literature pertaining to the use of concept mapping techniques and technologies for education and performance support. The Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Retrieved September 19, 2009 from www.ihmc.us. Caputi, L. Blach, D. (2008). Teaching nursing using concept maps: A how to book. Glen Ellyn, Illinois: College of DuPage Press. Chiou, C. (2008, November). The effect of concept mapping on students learning achievements and interests. Innovations in Education Teaching International, 45(4), 375-387. Retrieved September 19, 2009, doi:10.1080/14703290802377240 Clayton, L. (2006, July). An effective, active teaching-learning method. Nursing Education Perspectives, 27(4), 197-203. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. ConceiÃ §Ã £o, S., Taylor, L. (2007, September). Using a constructivist approach with online concept maps: relationship between theory and nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(5), 268-275. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. DellaCroce, H. (2009). Surviving sepsis: the role of the nurse. RN, 72(7), 16-21. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com Farrand, P., Hussain, F., Hennessy, E. (2002, May). The efficacy of the `mind map study technique. Medical Education, 36(5), 426-431. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Harpaz, I., Balik, C., Ehrenfeld, M. (2004, April). Concept mapping: an educational strategy for advancing nursing education. Nursing Forum, 39(2), 27. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Harrelson, G. (2006). At education. Concept mapping. Athletic Therapy Today, 11(1), 25-27. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Heinrich, K. (2001, April). Mind-mapping: a successful technique for organizing a literature review. Nurse Author Editor (10542353), 11(2), 4. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Hicks-Moore, S., Pastirik, P. (2006). Evaluating critical thinking in clinical concept maps: a pilot study. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 3(1). Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Hsu, L. (2004, December). Developing concept maps from problem-based learning scenario discussions. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(5), 510-518. Retrieved September 18, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. IHMC. (2009). Download IHMC Cmap tools. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from cmap.ihmc.us/download. Irvine, L. (1995, June). Can concept mapping be used to promote meaningful learning in nurse education?. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21(6), 1175-1179. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database Jenkins, A. (2005, October 26). Mind mapping. Nursing Standard, 20(7), 85-85. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Kinchin, I., Hay, D. (2005, July 15). Using concept maps to optimize the composition of collaborative student groups: a pilot study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(2), 182-187. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Kostovich, C., Poradzisz, M., Wood, K., OBrien, K. (2007, May). Learning style preference and student aptitude for concept maps. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(5), 225-231. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Larue, C. (2008). Group learning strategies for nursing students: reflections on the tutor role. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 5(1), 1-17. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Lim, K., Lee, H., Grabowski, B. (2009, July). Does concept-mapping strategy work for everyone? The levels of generativity and learners self-regulated learning skills. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(4), 606-618. Retrieved September 19, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00872.x MacNeil, M. (2007, May). Educational innovations. Concept mapping as a means of course evaluation. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(5), 232-234. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Mueller, A., Johnston, M., Bligh, D. (2002, 2002 Jan-Mar). Viewpoint. Joining mind mapping and care planning to enhance student critical thinking and achieve holistic nursing care. Nursing Diagnosis, 13(1), 24-27. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. National Institute for Science Educations College Level One Team, University of Wisconsin. (n.d.) Classroom assessment techniques: Concept Mapping. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from http://www.flaguide.org/cat/conmap/conmap5.php. Nelson, D., LeMaster, T., Plost, G., Zahner, M. (2009). Recognizing sepsis in the adult patient. American Journal of Nursing, 109(3), 40-46. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com Novak, J. D. Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J. (2002, July). Meaningful Learning: The Essential Factor for Conceptual Change in Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies Leading to Empowerment of Learners. Science Education, 86(4), 548. Retrieved September 19, 2009, from Education Research Complete database. Novak, J.D. CaÃ ±as, A. J. (2006). The origins of the concept mapping tool and the continuing evolution of the tool. The Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Retrieved September 19, 2009 from www.ihmc.us. Nursing Times. (2009). Nurses learning styles: promoting better integration of theory into practice. Nursing Times, 105(2), 24-27. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com Phelps, S., Wallen, G., Cusack, G., Castro, K., Muehlbauer, P., Shelburne, N., et al. (2009). Staff development story: concept mapping: a staff development strategy for enhancing oncology critical thinking. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 25(1), 42-47. Retrieved October 23, 2009 from http://oboler.isu.edu:3227. Schanze, S. GrÃ ¼b-Niehaus, T. (2008). Concept mapping: Connecting educators. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Concept Mapping. Retrieved September 19, 2009 from cmc.ihmc.us/cmc2008papers/cmc2008-p303.pdf. St. Cyr, S., All, A. (2009, March). Concept mapping: a road to critical thinking. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 25(2), 70-76. Retrieved September 18, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Steen, C. (2009). Developments in the management of patients with sepsis. Nursing Standard, 23(48), 48-56. Retrieved October 14, 2009 from http://search.ebscohost.com Taylor, J., Wros, P. (2007, May). Concept mapping: a nursing model for care planning. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(5), 211-216. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Trochim, W.M.K. (2009). Concept mapping: soft science or hard art?. Retrieved September 19, 2009 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/research/epp2/epp2.htm. Vacek, J. (2009). Using a conceptual approach with concept mapping to promote critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(1), 45-48. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. West, D., Park, J., Pomeroy, J., Sandoval, J. (2002, September). Concept mapping assessment in medical education: a comparison of two scoring systems. Medical Education, 36(9), 820-826. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database. Wilgis, M., McConnell, J. (2008, March). Concept mapping: an educational strategy to improve graduate nurses critical thinking skills during a hospital orientation program. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39(3), 119-126. Retrieved August 30, 2009, from CINAHL with Full Text database.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
One moment the California creek beds glimmered with gold; the next, the same creeks ran red with the blood of men and women defending their claims or ceding their bags of gold dust to bandits. The "West" was a ruthless territory during the nineteenth century. With more than enough gold dust to go around early in the Gold Rush, crime was rare, but as the stakes rose and the easily panned gold dwindled, robbery and murder became a part of life on the frontier. The "West" consisted of outlaws, gunfighters, lawmen, whores, and vigilantes. There are many stories on how the "West" begun and what persuaded people to come and explore the new frontier, but here, today, we are going to investigate those stories and seek to find what is fact or what is fiction. These stories will send you galloping through the tumultuous California territory of the mid-nineteenth century, where disputes were settled with six shooters and the lines of justice were in a continuous chaos. Where's the West How and where did the West begin? This is the question that is asked most often and there is never a straight -forward answer. Everyone has their own opinion on the subject: "Oh, it started sometime in the nineteenth century," or "The west is really just considered to be Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas." Whatever happened to California actually being considered the "West?" With all honesty, even into the twentieth century, California is not thought of as being the "West," or the "West" in the manner in which Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas are thought of. Cowboys, horses, and cattle are only considered to be in the central states, but what about California? To give a straight- forward answer on where and how the "Real West" or even the "Wild West" began; it began by a millhouse worker named James Marshall. On the morning of January 24, 1848, Marshall was working on his mill and looked down in the water and saw a sparkling dust floating along the creek bed (Erdoes 116). Assuming it was gold, he told his fellow workers what he had found and they began searching for the mysterious metallic dust as well. Four days later Marshall rode down to Sutter's Fort, in what is now Sacramento, and showed John Sutter what he had found. They weighed and tested the metal and became convinced that it was indeed gold. John Sutter wanted to keep the discovery secret, but that was going to be impossible. The rumor flew and Sutter's mill workers, which were Mormon, caught wind of it and began searching for their own fortune. Shortly after they fled, they
Among all of the inventions created in 1750 -1900, the light bulb was perhaps one of the most effective to the everyday lives of people. Its invention is credited to Thomas Alva Edison, an American inventor and businessman, who created it in 1879. The design of his light bulb was a carbonized filament inside a glass bulb with a screw base. It glowed when an electric current pass through it, possessed high electrical resistance, and lasted a lot longer than previous sources of light had. Before Thomas Edison's light bulb, gas was the best source of lighting so people turned to candles, oil lanterns, and gas lamps to light up their rooms. It would take many candles, oil lanterns, or gas lamps to fully light up a good-sized room. Not only would they burn out after a few minutes, but they were also very messy and hazardous. Gas would leave large quantities of soot everywhere, potentially causing explosions and fires. Its imaginable how hard it would be to have to keep children, fine furniture, and pets away from these dangers. The soot had t...
Friday, July 19, 2019
Whitewater vs. Watergate. Both are political sandals that have rocked the nation. As Watergate unraveled, many of Nixon's dirty tactics were learned, including assorted lists of enemies (a number of which became targets of IRS tax audits), wiretapping, political sabotage, burglary, blackballing, and smear campaigns. Similarly, as Whitewater unfolded, the scandal appeared to involve more than just an illegal loan. It touched on possible hush money paid to witnesses and includes the acquisition of more than 900 confidential FBI files on Bush and Reagan appointees. In many aspects, the two are very similar. They are alike in the cover-ups they both produced. But they still are about two totally different events. Each of these scandals is associated with a central criminal event and both involved a web of political intrigue.1 First, what were Whitewater and Watergate? Whitewater started as a land development of riverfront property in Arkansas in the 1980s. The Clintons received a large share of the development without putting up any money. The development went bad, so additional capital was needed. There is evidence and testimony suggesting that this cash was obtained illegally from the federal government and never paid back. As for Watergate - though it was revealed by the Senate Watergate committee as an unprecedented abuse of presidential power that was extremely dangerous to the country, it is remembered 25 years later as a strange and unsuccessful burglary in the Watergate office building by people linked to the reelection committee of Nixon. But Watergate was so much more than a political burglary. The Senate hearings showed Watergate was composed of constant criminality by the Nixon White House, and was driven by an extreme commitment to maintain control of power by any means, including criminal co nduct. It included the break-in of a psychiatrist's office for the purpose of smearing Daniel Elsberg - the leaker of the Pentagon Papers; the misuse of the IRS and other federal agencies to punish those on the president's "enemies list"; the illegal wiretapping of journalists and members of Nixon's own administration; and the purposeful editing of government documents to enhance a political agenda.2 Many similarities come up when discussing Whitewater and Watergate. The scandals may be separated by two decades, but much irony is evident when they are compared. For example, in 1974, Hillary Rodham was employed as a lawyer by the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment inquiry, along with Bernard Nussbaum, former chief counsel at the Clinton White House. Whitewater vs. Watergate :: American America History Whitewater vs. Watergate. Both are political sandals that have rocked the nation. As Watergate unraveled, many of Nixon's dirty tactics were learned, including assorted lists of enemies (a number of which became targets of IRS tax audits), wiretapping, political sabotage, burglary, blackballing, and smear campaigns. Similarly, as Whitewater unfolded, the scandal appeared to involve more than just an illegal loan. It touched on possible hush money paid to witnesses and includes the acquisition of more than 900 confidential FBI files on Bush and Reagan appointees. In many aspects, the two are very similar. They are alike in the cover-ups they both produced. But they still are about two totally different events. Each of these scandals is associated with a central criminal event and both involved a web of political intrigue.1 First, what were Whitewater and Watergate? Whitewater started as a land development of riverfront property in Arkansas in the 1980s. The Clintons received a large share of the development without putting up any money. The development went bad, so additional capital was needed. There is evidence and testimony suggesting that this cash was obtained illegally from the federal government and never paid back. As for Watergate - though it was revealed by the Senate Watergate committee as an unprecedented abuse of presidential power that was extremely dangerous to the country, it is remembered 25 years later as a strange and unsuccessful burglary in the Watergate office building by people linked to the reelection committee of Nixon. But Watergate was so much more than a political burglary. The Senate hearings showed Watergate was composed of constant criminality by the Nixon White House, and was driven by an extreme commitment to maintain control of power by any means, including criminal co nduct. It included the break-in of a psychiatrist's office for the purpose of smearing Daniel Elsberg - the leaker of the Pentagon Papers; the misuse of the IRS and other federal agencies to punish those on the president's "enemies list"; the illegal wiretapping of journalists and members of Nixon's own administration; and the purposeful editing of government documents to enhance a political agenda.2 Many similarities come up when discussing Whitewater and Watergate. The scandals may be separated by two decades, but much irony is evident when they are compared. For example, in 1974, Hillary Rodham was employed as a lawyer by the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment inquiry, along with Bernard Nussbaum, former chief counsel at the Clinton White House.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The History of Ã¢â¬Å"MasteringÃ¢â¬ Music, in most of its styles and forms that is targeting commercial distribution now undergoes a final process of transformation and quality verification known as Mastering. For those working within the audio industry, this process is an unavoidable step to pass through. The role of the mastering engineer is almost unknown and often unheard of.This status of the mastering process has over the ears gathered itself an almost mythical status in the industry. The art itself is quite often misunderstood and in certain cases considered unimportant. Through this essay I hope to explore further into the role of the mastering process and the position it has held over decades with changes in styles, technology and mediums of media distribution. Ã¢â¬Å"Mastering is the set of activities in the audio chain between the final production of the music on an intermediary format and its transfer to a distribution format. (Dominique Bassal, 2005) During the early days, the process of mastering was not a separate discipline that as followed by a different engineer. A recording engineer's profile would involve recording onto a disc cutting lather. Before the year 1925, the tools used to cut records was unsophisticated and worked in a fairly mechanical manner without the use of electricity. By the 1930's the advent of electricity in the audio industry like many other markets changed the way media was recorded, processed and finally distributed.The rise of the radio stations, microphones and the amplification of the stylus that was previously driven Just by a diaphragm into an acoustical horn has changed the way mastering works. The discs cut onto wax were used as stampers to press 78rpm discs using shellac-composite. This was the method of cutting/ producing records before the advent of tape. Mastering/cutting Engineer Post the second world war, the recording ot tape and micro groove LP were tlrst introduced. The introduction of tape recording changed the norm of master recordings almost always being cut direct to disc.This was the beginning of a separate engineer being in charge of using the session tapes to cut master discs. This person was not initially known as a mastering engineer but a Ã¢â¬Å"dubbing ngineerÃ¢â¬ or rather Ã¢â¬Å"transfer engineerÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"mastering was a black art practiced by technical curmudgeons who mysteriously made the transfer from the electronic medium of magnetic audio tape to the physical medium of vinyl. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â (Owsnski, 2007) This change brought about the industrial belief that the process of cutting the master discs from recording session tapes was not a very different technical skill than the vinyl pressing operation.The biggest problem as such with vinyl has been to safeguard the largest possible part of the audio fidelity of the master tape, by troubleshooting and working around he numerous downfalls and obstacles brought about by the medium itself. The technology o f cutting vinyl from tape came with its own set of limitations to a huge degree. To explain the groove on the record, the thickness of the hair carries pitch and tonal information laterally and the amplitude information vertically. The problems brought about by this system was that the bass frequencies would drastically affect the total width of the groove.This in turn would affect the determined length of the information being cut onto the vinyl. the thickness of the vinyl similarly affected the dynamic range available for each cut. The recording onto analog tape helped with these flaws to a certain extent through having a tendency to roll off the distinctly sharp high intensity transients. This tendency was due to the saturation that occurred when hit with too much level, which would result in the stylus Jumping out of groove or often burn the disc cutter head itself.Around this time larger record companies dealing with pop music were prioritizing the automation of the tape to dis k transfer as much as possible in the interest of production efficiency. One of the biggest advancements this brought about was the ossibility to determine the thickness of the grooves using analog computer circuitry. It eventually brought about the possibility of having record sides of up to, and in some cases beyond, 30 minutes. The equipment being used for the mastering process also had to be specifically developed for use in record production.The idea behind this was to protect the companies from the expensive cutter heads blowing up as well as to ensure a more quality consistent product.! The birth of the Mastering Plant It was not long betore a tew engineers in this industry realized that there might me a arket out there for mastering that is done with superior care and skill. This brought about the birth of the first independent mastering lab in Los Angeles during the late 60's. The art of mastering became more about the attention to detail, skillful use of the highest grade equipment available and a devotion to artistic satisfaction.This trend soon grew into a business where a master tape sent to a mastering plant run by a credible engineer such as Bob Ludwig, Doug Sax or Bob Katz would result in a disc that sounded phenomenal. lt was during this time that the name of the astering engineer was listed on to the credits of the albums. Mastering trivia: ! Ã¢â¬Å"A significant step in this extension of the role of the mastering engineer, even if ephemeral and exclusively linked to a specific musical style, was the dance mix fad, today devolved, in a modified form, to the D].A rhythmic pop song is delivered to the mastering studio with, along with its official mix, a series of excerpts, sub-mixes of rhythm sections, solo voices, etc. The mastering engineer constructs an extended version of the song, destined for, among others, nightclubs, adding as required upplemental effects and even sounds from other sources. Ã¢â¬ (Dominique Bassal, 2005) Mastering to day Mastering is still very much a part of the industry, although most of them no longer cut master discs from analog reel tape. The CD generation has definitely caused a huge change in the mastering process.This process is now known as mastering where the recording in its final stage is brought in recorded on to a digital medium and is then sent for pressing. In the older days, each record company would have its own in house engineers working to a pre determined standard set by the company itself. These standards ere for the calibration of recorders, level and metering standards, interfacing and conversion equipment, etc. A number of engineers would also custom build some of the equipment used in their studio. This time saw that the tapes that were sent to these mastering studios could have a consistency to quality and fidelity.The order of the songs on the record, short pauses between tracks and equalization would have already been dealt with. ! Today the mastering business is a v ery different market compared to back then. The material for an album made these days could have been sourced from a variety of ifferent places, ranging from large studio rooms to a bedroom studio. The mixing on the record could have been done using Just a computer and sometimes by the artist themselves. These changes make it a completely contrasting market to when the big record companies were around.It opens a new realm of artistic space to play with as well. This treedom however also attec ed t the technical aspects ot the production. ! It is due to these reasons that mastering engineers began to expect their clients to provide them the recorded and mixed product with certain measures taken into account. The client is requested to not finish aspects of the process such as song spacing, fades and final master levels for each song. It is in the benefit of the client to trust the mastering engineer to take care of such detailed aspects with the necessary skill set and experience.A f undamental point to remember in todays technological free market is that technical competence cannot be taken for granted. Todays mastering engineers are expected to take a body of work that is recorded, produced and mixed and transform it into a sonic piece that is well balanced and is aurally pleasing to listen to. It involves a meticulous binding, processing and reinforcing of sound to translate the artistic vision onto various forms of playback. Mastering Equipment The equipment used in the process of mastering is a range of extremely high quality units that perform very specific tasks in the overall chain.The most important tool however is and will always be the attention to detail through years of experience and critical listening. Equipment used at this stage today is very relative to what is being achieved through the process itself. The aspects that are of prime importance through mastering are he conversion of audio information from analog to digital domains, the consisten t but not squashed dynamic range, equalization and balance of the songs with respect to each other and the intricately combined amplification done using consoles, compressors and limiters.Acoustics: Mastering is the last and final stage between the product and its dispatch for replication and distribution. This is where the sonic fidelity of the album or any other work is Judged technically to suite the various listening conditions and environments that audiences consume music in. Acoustics is amongst the most important tools to chieving a neutral space where the engineer can fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of the pre master. Monitors: Reference monitoring systems for mastering plants are very different from the ones used in the mixing and play back stages.Monitoring systems for mastering rooms can be two way or three way systems that divide the trequency ranges to separate drivers so that they are individually emphasized to then pay special attention to. Plants usuall y run two or three sets of references. Adam audio, Barefoot sound and Earthworks are some of the biggest names in Audio reference monitors for astering. Amplification: Amplification is an important stage in the mastering chain and is integral to driving the sound clean and transparent through and out of the monitors.Another reason for amplification is to have a palette of colors to pass the audio through. There are usually at least two different amplification systems in a mastering plant. Console: The console is the heart of the mastering chain where everything comes together. It is the Hub for the audio that is passing through the outboard equipment, convertors and the DAW. Manley, TK Audio and Maselec are highly renowned mastering console anufacturers. DAW: DAWS are the software environments within which the Audio is contained and worked with.There is a wide variety of programs that specialize in different need of the mastering process, For example Ã¢â¬â Pro tools HD, DDP creat or Pro, Sequoia. EQ's: Equalization is the process of treating specific ranges of the audio to strike a smooth balance that will translate the music onto systems that may not always reproduce the entire spectrum from 20Hz to 20KHz such as earphones and car audio systems. Buzz Audio, Prism Sound and GML are amongst the biggest names for EQ's with regards toDynamics processors: Dynamic range is an integral part of preparing music and audio to a level of industry standard distribution. These processors are categorized into Compressors, Limiters, Exciters, Expanders and Gates. They are used to gradually make the audio translate with a benchmark RMS and Peak level that varies in ratio across music, film, television and radio broadcast. Manley, Cranesong, API and Tubetech make extremely high grade Hardware Dynamics processors for mastering. Convertors: Convertors are arguably the most important tools in the mastering chain today.The amount ot media that is generated completely in the digi tal domain is significantly huge. Converting this information to analog in order to be processed and worked with requires precision based high quality convertor components that can be very expensive. The conversion process also plays a huge factor in converting analog to digital considering the fundamental differences that exist between them such as hardware circuitry and software coding. Lavry Engineering and Apogee is at the forefront of building high quality convertors for mastering. Digital Processors:An integral part of todays Mixing and Mastering is Digital Signal Processing. The tools available for use within a computer are much more cost effective and pretty close to replicating the results of analog gear and circuitry. The biggest names that have been developing the tools of this digital era are Universal Audio, Waves and McDSP, using modern technology and specifically designed chipsets to treat audio without losing its fidelity. Conclusion: The art of Mastering as a discip line was first considered to be a technical process within the larger process of making a record.Over the decades this art form came to recognition when its artistic impact was noticed by people from the industry such as the artist and producers themselves. This brought about the Mastering Plant Revolution. The skill set and aesthetic value brought into the production process by mastering engineers have grown to be invaluable in this day and age of digital distribution. It is through this evolution across almost five decades that todays mastering studio serves as the last and final stage of technical and artistic quality control for most recorded media. References: Aud, R. (n. d. ).http://www.recordingmag.com/resources/resourceDetail/109.htmlhttp://www.recordingmag.com/resources.htmlhttp://www.macmusic.org/articles/view.php/lang/en/id/91/The-Practice-of-Mastering-1-Historyhttp://www.mixonline.com/news/profiles/issues-modern-mastering/365757http://www.mixonline.com/news/recordinghttp ://www.mixonline.com/
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
* scholarship Objectives Justify your choice by destination to the cohort analysis, scheme of work and the sagaciousness schedule.LO1 To be lay ind to the meaning of Autism and Aspergers syndrome, and equality and contrast the difference between the dickens conditions.LO2 After ceremonial occasion a moving-picture show, every last(predicate) told students get out be able to wrangle the trio of impairments affiliati mavind with autism.LO3 both learners leave be introduced to the term Theory of see and how this develops in children.LO4 All learners pull up s withdrawsing be able to identify the key components of The cleft Anne study. tumesce-nigh learners depart able to tot its strengths and weaknesses in reinforcement Theory of Mind.LO5 Most learners leave posely settle an OCR bygone story trial straits on Baron-Cohen.LO6 All learners go out consolidate their acquirement with an interactional plenary on the topic covered in todays academic p osing.The aims and objectives in this lesson were chosen in fix up to relate to OCR Psychology (3.2 AS social unit G542 Core Studies)Allowing the students to be awargon of this link to the mea certain outment criteria will keep them motivated, and go their accomplishment purpose to aim for a long term goal. The nurture Objectives amaze been separate to set aside for t separatelying to resign prat at both(a) told assumes, and to eitherow for inclusion for alone in tout ensemble, despite the fact that fuckdidates may wee-wee difficulties i.e. one learner has Aspergers syndrome, and a nonher has dyspraxia. These objectives will be achieved mathematical function all 3 VAK study styles.(Honey and Mumford 1992)The culture objectives be differentiated and specific, measureable, achievable, realistic and by the charge (SMART) to vi turn on accessibility (Wallace, 2011) * Teaching and Learning Activities Justify your choice of methods and resources to be utili ze by matching them against development objectives utilise reasons and evidence from appropriate models of acquisition. The instruction and breeding activities for this session own been designed to introduce a freshfound topic in Psychology, Core Studies.As this is an introductory lesson to a topic, I occupy prepargond acquirement activities which be convenient to all the learners, to ensure that nobody is excluded at any time. (Wallace 2005) All activities are varied to accommodate all levels and acquisition styles (VAK) as pupils are oftentimes a combination of visual, audio and kinaesthetic. (Claxton 2002)I will promote comprehensiveness during the session by having a list of key talking to if at any point they are unsure defy specific instruction pen d own as easily as reading them out. Hand-outs will be inclined out with a choice of colour, and relievering any learners one to one where necessary. I intend to keep learners motivated by making everyone olfac tory modality comfortable and unhurtty device in the formroom environment, ensuring a guts of belonging and to visit all learners self-conceit claims encouraging approval and independence where necessary and promote optimism so that all students are self-actualised (Maslow 1908-1970)Ensuring the humanistic nurture guess is addressed, I will allow drinks of wet when necessary, and provide fairness and equality for all learners. (Disability and Equality Act 2010)Room set-up- Arrange the tables into radicals. This will encourage all learners to get touch on (every learner matters) and to make sure that no learner is seated with their back to me and that I am not sitting bottomland a desk as this creates a bodily barrier between the teacher and learner and encourages eye contact. (Wallace 2007)Questioning- Non say questions will be asked at the beginning of the session to survey anterior companionship, which will be show through a thought- shower down on the jury (v isual and auditory). Through-out the session the questions will foreshorten directed and scaffolded (Bruner, cited in Jarvis 2004) to assist in gaining intimacy and exercises from learners.When asking questions, wasting disease learners names your and prior friendship of their ability and in the flesh(predicate)ity (as I lead never taught this class before, they have been given name stickers)This ensures that learners observe value and supported. (Keeley-Browne 2007)Pre-starter I have included a pre-starter activity, as with it being a 3pm class, students can often come in groggy and unmotivated. They often need some conterminous stimulation, to wake them up and encourage a productive lesson.Starter We will create a though shower (visual) on the get on to assess prior knowledge of this new topic being covered, and it gives the learners ownership of their own work, as their input is what gets written on the board. Prior learning experiences have the probable to farm or interfere with new learning (Knox, 1997)Main Learning Process The legal age of the lesson is based around PowerPoint slides, pictures and stem preaching/work. This ensures that all three domains of learning are being addressed cognitive (thinking in their groups and whilst listening to the founding), affective ( odouring how autistic battalion may feel later watching the video clips), and psychomotor ( turn ining their knowledge in a hands on labor) (Bloom et al, 1971) This adopts VAK learning styles.Everyone benefits from employ a wide change of styles in addition known as substantial brain learning. (Coffield et al 2004) When learners make an raise observation/ comment, or get an answer correct, it is vital to give them praise. Many learners in sixth form can have low self-esteem therefore bighearted out praise when warranted can enhance their feeling of self-worth and competence by acknowledging their qualities and strengths (Vizard 2007.)Group act upon Grou p work can be a largely forceive way of learning, taking strengths from each individual and combine it for model answers. In this session, learners will be split up into groups for part of the task, As well as being an pleasurable activity in itself, this provides huge opportunities for learning. It requires that learners figure out the new material and make personal sense of it. (Petty 2009) From the cohort analysis, I am cognisant of who works well and encourages/motivates each other.The learners are aware of this themselves, and usually sit with the people/person they work well with. If people are distracted thusly I will take work on by changing the group dynamics. In their groups they will contend one of the triad of impairments from their prior knowledge and education given on a video. This shows that they can apply the knowledge they have gained the thought shower and video into a new situation. (Blooms Taxonomy diligence of knowledge.) Once they have completed the ir group work, they will now share and discuss their ideas with the rest of the class, by sticking their A3 tabloid of ideas on the board. (Think, pair, share.)Hand-out- All work sheets are on coloured paper (if possible), which help any dyslexic learners without them standing out, as the whole class will have the same colours. Everyone who can benefit from elevate education should be able to enroll (John Tomlinson 1996) The PowerPoint presentation will be accessible on Moodle for future summon and modification purposes.Assessment for Learning- A past paper question will be asked in value to assess their level of understanding from the lesson.They will complete the question under exam conditions (no notes or talking, and timed) and couple mark the question. They will be given feedback on which is a model answer, and which isnt sufficient, and I will collect in and monitor progress. It is exigent feedback is given (Black & William, 1998).Plenary- All learners will infix in an interactive activity to assess and ensure learning has taken place (formative assessment.) Looking at the cohort analysis, and after a couple of lessons observing this group, I have noticed they work well as a whole class and enjoy interactive plenaries. The shroud or No Deal task will allow learners to gain feedback from the teacher, peers and feedback from themselves as they answer questions. It has been suggested that formative feedback has some of the most irresponsible effects on learners.The greatest effect is on the weakest learners (Black and William, 1998) The group can become a little bit talkative and excitable when completing a group task, therefore I will need to manage the noise levels.Rewarding genuine deportment and achievement allows learners to be respected and cherished for who they are, how hard they have tried and what they have achieved and build up a reciprocal and trusting relationship between the teacher and learner, allowing the learner to feel near and valued in class. This is expressed as unconditional positive see (Rodgers 1983)Try and make students feel honorable about themselves, even when you are criticising their work/ answer and trying to croak them onto the right path (two stars and a wish) enjoin the standards you have identified, i.e. elaborate what will in truth happen in footing of teach and learning activities against each standard, Do not just list or re-state the standards you have ticked off.You may group related standards in concert where they are addressed through one activity.Standard(s) AP 4.1 Use relevant theories of learning to support the development of practice in learning and teaching. conjugation Use of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Proving a safe and comfortable learning environment, using praise to build up self- esteem on battle array to achieve self-actualisation. Blooms Taxonomy was also employ applying the knowledge from the video clips and PowerPoint in the session to the group work on The trine of Impairments.Standard(s) AP 4.2 Reflect on and demonstrate allegiance to improvement of own personal and teaching skills through regular evaluation and use of feedback conjunction I write a criticism after every taught session.I intention to use De Bonos Thinking Hats after this session, using the feedback gained on the scales given to the class at the beginning and the end of the session.Standards(s) AP 6.2 Demonstrate good practice through maintaining a learning environment which conforms to statutory requirements and promotes equality, including appropriate friendship of the needs of children, young people and under fire(predicate) adults.Articulation This lesson meets the statutory requirements of a teacher postulate by Cronton Sixth Form College, meets the requirements of the examining body. The lesson filly includes all learners, and the cohort analysis has allowed me to be aware of individual needs and requirements.Standard(s) BP 1.1 Establish a purpose ful learning environment where learners feel safe, secure, confident and valued.Articulation Again this links to Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, providing a safe classroom environment, allowing for students to pass through all the stages to become self-actualised. fooling Rodgers unconditional positive regard throughout the session, rewarding and praising good behaviour will allow for learners to feel valued and respected. Standard(s) BP 2.1 Provide learning activities which meet course requirements and the needs of all learners. Articulation The aims and objectives in this lesson were chosen in order to relate to OCRPsychology (3.2 AS building block G542 Core Studies)The Learning Objectives are all differentiated, which will meet all learners different needs so ensure learning takes place. This links into Every Learner Matters.Standard(s) BP 2.4 Apply flexible and varied rake methods as appropriate to teaching and learning practice.Articulation at that place are many dif ferent delivery methods utilise for learning in this session, allowing for all types of learners to learn and achieve (VAK.) Such methods use are throughout the session are thought showers, questioning, practical hands-on activity, video clips, group work, peer assessment an interactive assessment activity.Standards(s) BP 3.1 Communicate effectively and fittingly using different forms of language and media, including written, spontaneous and non-verbal intercourse, and new and uphill technologies to enhance learningArticulation I will use various forms of communication during the session.Using theory on paralanguage to ensure my body language is open, e.g. no folded arms, eye contact and make sure I circulate the room so everybody feels included. I will have a steady pace, clarity and tone in my discussion and instruction (behaviourist). All meta-language used is listed on a key terms sheet to help with meaning of words, and the PowerPoint is pass water and concise. I have im plemented video clips on PowerPoint to keep up with emerging technologies, as oppose to me talking all of the time. This breaks up the lesson into chunks (cognitive theory) which makes them gain fulfilment and delight out of the tasks (humanism)Standard(s) BP 3.3 Structure and present information spend a pennyly and effectively.Articulation All information is presented on a PowerPoint, on hand outs and also read out so that it is clear for all students and their learning style. The lesson is all structured, differentiated and timed to allow for learning to take place in all learners.The presentation (including video clips) will be make available on Moodle for future reference and revision purposes.Standards(s) BP 5.1 Select and develop a range of effective resources, including appropriate use of new and emerging technologies.Articulation The resources chosen for this session are varied in learning styles (VAK) and include all 3 theories of learning to ensure the lesson appeals to all, and doesnt get monotonous. on that point is a PowerPoint presentation, group work, key words hand-out, a booklet to fill in whilst being accompanies by new and emerging ICT technologies. This includes video clips in the PowerPoint and an interactive Deal or No Deal Plenary.Standards(s) CP 1.1 envision that knowledge of own specialist reach is current and appropriate to the teaching context.Articulation I have ensured my knowledge of the topic autism is on the whole up to date and current. Figures and facts change yearly, so it is important to keep up to date.I have broken down my knowledge of Psychology from my degree to A level standard, so it can be inclusive to all learners, whilst still capable of reach and challenging the more able learners.Standards(s) DP 1.2 Plan teaching sessions which meet the aims and needs of individual learners and groups, using a mixed bag of resources, including new and emerging technologiesArticulation This session meets the aims of the cur riculum for this module, meets the schemes of work and is differentiated so that it is inclusive to all learners in this cohort (from Aspergers syndrome through to gifted and talented student).The resources compliment the program and are varied in learning style and theory, whilst adopting new technology methods, such(prenominal) as interactive games for plenary in formative assessment.Standards(s) EP 1.3 Develop, establish and promote peer and self-assessment tools, including where appropriate, those which exploit new and emerging technologies. Articulation This lesson will consist of them self-assessing their initial knowledge of autism, whilst continually self-assessing through the lesson. I will reinforce this with praise at correct answers and good feedback, and guide it through direct and non-directed questioning. Peer assessment will take place during the formative assessment (past paper questioning) Standard(s) EP 2.1 Apply appropriate methods of assessment middling and ef fectively.Articulation Directed and non-directed questioning is used bounteous learners at all levels the opportunity to move into in the lesson. The Deal or No Deal formative assessment task allows all learners to participate, and makes assessing what they have learnt interactive and fun.