Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Impact Of Information Technology On Society And Cultures

Formerly, the impact on societies and cultures was limited by information technology advancements. Conversely, in the present time, information technology can be considered a part of every educational institutions, business, and even personal activity. This paper stands to give light to the growing influence of the information technology field and whether the development of a code of ethics would be advisable to focus on the challenges in the usage of information technology. Along with the intensification of information technology use in societies, there is a similar increase for some businesses or individuals to engage in some type of unethical behavior associated with the use of information technology. This evidence should be motivation for businesses and educational systems to discourse the ethical concerns of information technology usage and to cultivate a code of ethics to avoid ethical quandaries and violations. According to Brooks (Brooks, 2010), There are three topics recogni zed as issues of concern for managers of technology. These three issues are: security, privacy, and intellectual property The security of the data refers to the capability of maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of the data and electronic information so only those with a legitimate need to access it are permitted to do so. It is often on the news that hackers are attaining access to some information that they were not certified to access and take that information and publish it on theShow MoreRelatedImpact Of Technology On Development Of Society1723 Words   |  7 Pages1. How has technology impacted development, both negatively and positively? One of the most interesting factors of social transformations in the modern post- industrial society is the widespread influence of modern information technologies on society. There is no precise opinion about positive or negative effects of technologies on the development of society. It mostly depends on the people, who use them, and what purposes they pursue. Information technologies have radically changed the workRead MoreAse Standards Essay1197 Words   |  5 Pagesstandards are seen in teachers and students alike and are often what employers look at when hiring or when they are looking for teachers to reward or give tenure to. The International Society for technology in Education ISTE standards for teachers and students, Ohio state standards, and the state standards for Technology National Association all affect how a teacher can or should plan lessons, the way a student learns, and the future of student’s understanding and learning empowerment; more specificallyRead MoreThe Relationship Between Consumers And Businesses1113 Words   |  5 Pageswestern societies has changed due to the diffusion of technology. In addition, the tendency of Western societies to have consumer-based economies increases the impact that technological advances have on the way that business function and interact with their consumers. The widespread u se of technology as well as the different functions available due to technological advances has caused businesses to shift their marketing strategies, affecting not only the consumer but also the structure of society itselfRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Media, Culture, And Society1193 Words   |  5 Pagesadvent of technology. They have become easier, faster, more comfortable, and dynamic. But, at the same time, our lives have become lethargic and anti-social, just like the computers and smartphones that have become a part of our lives. The technology has enriched our lives and enlightened our minds, but in pursuit of its cozy comforts, people tend to rely on it too much, so much that they can’t even imagine living without it. Throughout this essay, I will explain the effective impact of technology on mediaRead MoreTechnopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology by Neil Postman1120 Words   |  5 PagesAs time progresses technology increases and improves. However, this progression could pose as a serious problem for generations to come, and New York University department chair of communication arts Neil Postman expresses this concern in his 1992 book, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. In the opening of Postman’s book he expresses that technology is indeed our friend because technology provides our society with fast and easy convenience and accessibility. As with most other thingsRead MoreThe Internet Of Things. Indentification #. Every Single1415 Words   |  6 PagesInternet (Morgan). These types of devices have become increasingly popular as technology advances and people desire to personalize their every habit. However, with so much information being constantly uploaded, many controversial questions are brought into play. There are trade-offs to having a â€Å"smart† experience. These smart devices dehumanize life, culture, privacy, and finance. In each different category, the impact of the Internet of Things, or IOT, is slightly different, but in each, sacrificesRead MoreThe History and Technology of the Computer in the Nineteenth Century1590 Words   |  7 PagesIn our fast pace society, technology is ever changing. This has ultimately resulted in technology always being at our fingertips. On an average day so many people are dependent on computers for their capabilities; including, police officers, small businesses, Wall Street, and even the average person for leisure. Without the invention of the first mechanical computer design in 1822 by Charles Baggage, our society would not be where it is at today. The computer has been noted to be most of theRead MoreNext Came The Third Generation In 1963; In This Generation,1681 Words   |  7 Pagesbetter marketing strategies and platforms contribute largely towards the development of the American economy. However, a significant achievement of using computers has been its ability to open up business opportunities such as online businesses, technology-related ventures, and greater markets (Ayo and Mbarika 175). Computer platforms such as the internet and other online platforms make it possible to sell and buy products online. Moreover, they enhance marketing making it possible to reach consumersRead MoreWhy Is Medium Is The Massage Essay1528 Words   |  7 Pagesthat recipient receives messages in different ways depending on how they are presented to him. The message of any medium or technology is the change of scale, rhythm or pattern it introduces into human life. Society determines the medium in which the message will be transmitted (McLuhan). Society is responsible for both the transmission and reception of messages. Technology does not determine, but rather provides another way of people expressing. The effectiveness of journalistic message dependsRead MoreTechnology And Social Problems1229 Words   |  5 Pagesof life in the society has embraced modernization and gained more technological advancement because of the presence of computers, cell phones, television, internet and industries of every kind. Communication has also taken the shape of emails and text messages as well as business systems such as online libraries, e buying, and online banking. Even though technology has contributed a lot towards the advancement of the society today, the truth is it has also brought a negative impact on the same community

Monday, December 16, 2019

A Critical Exploration Of The Increasing Fragmentation Of Policing Free Essays

string(63) " of the state rather than the ‘rolling back of the state’\." Introduction The past few decades have seen an increase in demand for private security driven primarily by the apparent return of mercenary activities (Adams 1999). Private security firms such as Erinys, Triple Canopy and Blackwater have joined the tales of â€Å"neo-mercenaries† such as Sandline International in Sierra Leone and Executive Outcomes in Angola to become the focus of widespread media coverage (Abrahamsem Williams 2009).Recent figures indicate a growth from around 600,000 private security employees to well over a million today (Steden Sarre 2007). We will write a custom essay sample on A Critical Exploration Of The Increasing Fragmentation Of Policing or any similar topic only for you Order Now But this trend should not come as a surprise considering that publicly funded agencies that grew during the 19th century did not really eradicate the involvement of the private sectors in policing (Ericson Kevin 1997). With the shift to private policing, investors in the security industries have seen their earnings steadily increase. This trend has stimulated a growing interest in contemporary international politics and has become the focus of widespread journalistic coverage. Some view the increasing fragmentation of policing as government’s failure to providing the most basic needs, security. As pointed out by Garland (2001), the pervasiveness of private firms is an indication of the impotence of governments in addressing the most basic demands. The increasing trend of outsourcing security tasks marks the state’s retreat towards a more coordinating role rather than a providing role As Button states: the increasing privatization of policing has eroded one of the founding myths of modern societies: ‘the myth that the sovereign state is capable of providing security, law and order, and crime control within its territorial boundaries’ (Button 2012, p.22). Whereas privatization of policing may indicated states’ failure in providing fundamental security services to its citizens, this is not necessarily true.. It does not necessarily mean that the state is dying but rather diversifying and developing. Several key questions arise when debating on this topic. Why the increase in fragmentation of policingwhat are the implications of such trends in terms of democratic legitimacy, effectiveness and equityIn the midst of the far-reaching transformation, how best can the multiplicity of institutional reforms involved in policing be governed? This paper addresses these questions with evidence drawn from various perspectivesfrom various perspectives. it The paper provides an adequate account for the shifting structures of security, providing an explanation for the increasing fragmentation and debating the extent to which it privatization of policing has occurred. In order to understand the trend towards private policing and the reasons for the increasing fragmentation, it is important to first explore the historical development. Since it is beyond the scope of this paper to examine the 1st world war and the 2nd world war more in depth, the paper will briefly touch on some of the important transformations. depth the post-conflict proliferation of the 1st and 2nd World Wars, it will briefly touch on some important developments that led to the rise of private security industry. Historical context The involvement of thee private secto in crime control and prevention can be traced back to the cold war. During the cold war, the private military sector provided services ranging from logistics to direct combat (Cusumano 2010). A prime example is the US firm Vinnel which was contracted to train Saudi Arabian National Guard in 1977. Other private security actors military sectors involved in military assistance during the cold war period include the British Watchguard, Gurkha Security Guards, KMS, Saladin and DSL(Cusumano 2010). Whilst the growing trend towards privatization of policing is not a new phenomenonIt is clear that th involvement in security tasks is not a new phenomenon and has been there since the cold war period. However the transformations that followed after the cold war triggered the tectonic change and lead to the increasing in fragmentation of policing. First, there was massive downsizing with most of the armies which created a market for military assistance (Lock 199). With the demise of the cold war, the losing parties saw their military personnel transfer to other theartres. Having lost in both wars, Germany became the major source of private proliferation. The transformation that took place with most of the armies increased the demand for external contractors. Th, Second, the strain on human resources and the increase in emphasis on specialization led to outsourcing of functions other than direct combat, such as foreign military training. This is evident with the planned gradual privatization of activities other than combat by the US Department of Defense in 2001 (Cusumano 2012). Neoliberal reforms Apart from transformations that took place during othe post-cold war period, this trend was further reinforced by the rise of neoliberals. The emergence of neo-liberal ideas that emphasized on the importance of fragmentation of power has played a key role in this trend. This perspective is in line with Focault’s concept of dispersion of power. Neoliberal ideas such as outsourcing, privatization and public private partnerships that were aimed at streamlining bereacracies played a key role towards this trend. The rise of neoliberalism during the late 1970s led to the Outsourcing, privatization and public private partnerships that were formed during the late 1970s to streamline bureaucracies resulted in the shift from the state-centered hierarchical structures towards the more diverse horizontal structures (Abrahamsen Williams 2009). Neoliberal reforms aimed at limiting the power of the state by finding means of rendering them accountable (Button2012). These new arrangements empowered private actors to increase their involvement in security provision. In this regard, he rein of power can be said to have been taken over by the private sector appears to have been taken over by private corporations. As emphasis was placed on conflict settlement that goes beyond the state, this led to the widening of police infrastructure to include private bodies. In many states, public policing underwent major neoliberal reforms. Hybrid public-private structures were developed across many countries driven by the neoliberal ideology. However, the idea of diminishing power of the state As the upsurge of private security companies has led to the expansion of the state rather than the ‘rolling back of the state’. You read "A Critical Exploration Of The Increasing Fragmentation Of Policing" in category "Essay examples"The impact of this upsurge in private security has been the expansion of the state rather than ‘rolling back of the state’. The increase in fragmentation and privatization has extended the state apparatus of criminal justice and strengthened the institutional architecture of crime control rather than diminishing or reducing the powers of the state (Steden Sarre 2007). Privatization revolution The increasing fragmentation can also be said to have been driven by the ideological shift brought about by the ‘privatization revolution’. This is related to the emergence of ‘ mass private property’ where workplaces, leisure facilities, shopping malls and many other places are manned by private security guards. Whereas these places may be open to the public, in reality, they are private spaces. This seem to have has contributed to the growth of private security to the extent that private firms have mimicked nation states, a form of ( Button 2012). ‘Marketization’ or ‘commodification of policing The trend has further been reinforced by‘commodification’ of security which has resulted due to increased public demands that the police have not been able to satisfy. the involvement of the private sector in security provision has been seen as private is an appropriate means for dealing with the growing lawlessness and crimes. Rising cases of impunity across the globe have increased the demands for private security. Sierra leone is a prime example. Despite its small size, it is known globally a paradigm case of security privatization. The highly publicized activities of private security firms such as Sandline International and Executive Outcomes have made this small sized country globally recognized as the target of transnational security firms. Of course, this resulted due to the intense conflict in the country and presence of numerous rebel armies and civil defense militias. has conflict and the numerous rebel armies and civil defense militias in the country. The increasing demand for security across the globe has no doubt led to this momentous growth. Unrest and violence across various parts of the world including Syria, Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan have further strengthened the need to have these transnational security companies. Some of the well-known examples of these transnational firms are the Securitas Group and Group 4 securicor which have developed their operations in more than 100 countries (Musa Kayode 2000). Group 4 Securicor officers are currently providing protection to US troops in Kosovo. Minimize public costs Perhaps a most crucial factor that has played a central role towards this trend is the need to cut public costs. Given the rising cost of training and maintaining standing armies, many states have sought more cost effective ways of policing such as outsourcing security tasks to private sectors. (Krahmann 2002). Expertise of the private sector A more convincing argument for the proliferation of private security firms is related to expertise. The expansion can be attributed to the increasing emphasis on specialization of personnel. That is, the states have felt it necessary to outsource other security functions other than combat such as military training. It is a fact that success in military operations today is dependent on the state of the art technology. But most of the public military personnel do not have the necessary training for use of sophisticated technology. For example, the US relies on private military firms in using and maintaining sophisticated techology such as the Global Hawk unmanned aircrafts and the Predator (Tzifakis 2012). Private firms have an advantage in terms of their expertise especially given their practice of hiring regional expertise. ontrary to the above view, private security companies have come under immense criticism for their low standards of professionalism. Despite their high profile in forensic accountancy and expertise in several areas such as manning of aircrafts, the most dominant view has been that of an industry filled with corrupt, amoral, and incompetent employees (Steden Sarre 2007). This is evident with most of the studies conducted in North America which portray private security guards as poorly educated, marginally paid and hastily trained figures with dubious characters (Prenzer 2004, and livingstone Hart 2003) Risk-based thinking and global assemblages The increasing fragmentation of policing can also be said to have resulted due to risk based thinking and global assemblageswhere global security actors are integrated in the provision of security. Paradigm cases of global security assemblage can be seen in Nigeria and Siera leone. In Sierra Leone, private security firms have used their material resources including technical expertise to wield significant influences within global security assemblages. For example, in the case of Diamond minning by Koidu Holdings, PSCs especially Securicor Gray have used their capabilities and material resources to exert their influence onwield significant impact on the choice of security strategies (Abrahamsen Williams 2006). Similarly, global assemblages and risk based thinking appear to have contributed to the rise of private policing in Nigeria which is estimated to have between 1500 and 2000 private security companies (Keku Akingbade 2003). A good example of the global security assemblage in Nigeria is the contract between Group4Securicor and Chevron Nigeria Ltd (Abrahamsen Williams 2009). Through this contract, Group4Securicor replaced most of the local security companies that provided manned guarding together with the police. Whilst this private company was mandated to guard the CNL headquarters, the operational base in Escravos and the two logistical bases in Warri and Port Harcourt; it has used its material resources and legitimacy to expand its mandate beyond guarding these areas. Geographical fragmentation A further probable reason for the increasing fragmentation of policing is the geographical fragmentation. This has led to the shift from government to governance within the transatlantic community (Krahman 2002, p. 23). Two developments are linked to this geographical transformation: progressive replacement of nation state and shift towards regional and global governance; and a shift towards private security actors. The shift towards regional and global governance can be seen with the geographical expansion of the EU and the NATO (Abrahamsen Williams 2009). While the sideway shift to privatization of security functions can be seen with the proliferation of various private security firms. Growing awareness of importance of private sector in global governance Finally, the trend has been reinforced by the growing awareness of importance of the private sector in global governance. In fact, a with Global Compact Initiative has been established to create partnership between the UN and private sector on human rights issues. , Kofi-Annan, the former secretary to the UN, once contemplated the possibility of the using private security firms in peacekeeping missions both in the provision of logistics and military combat (Abrahamsen Willliams 2007). Today, we have many private agencies providing military assistance to the UN, Nato and even African Union peacekeeping missions. Whilst th idea of a private police established to achieve accountability of public police may sound realistic, there is little persuasive evidence regarding the effectiveness of the private institutions in performing this role. In fact, it is case that the private sector is largely unaccountable. In theory, it is stated that both the public and private police are accountable through the criminal law of their actions. However, there is no persuasive proof to support this claim in practice. Notorious examples can be seen with the recent events which Some of the recent infamous events that unfolded in California. This indicates indicatinghow how difficult it is to convict public police offenders (Stenning 1994). Fragmentation and privatization of policing a global phenomenon The trend towards private policing is clearly evident across the globe. For example, in Russia, there has been an explosive growth in private security personnel since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Whilst statistics indicate that Russia had almost 200,000 licensed private personnel in 1999, the the actual number is has been estimated to exceed 850,000 (Steden Sarre 2007). Similarly, A similar trend can be seen in Bulgaria which currently has about 130,000 personnel employed in private security sector in sharp contrast to 28,000 state police officers (Steden Sarre 2007). A similar trend can be seen with emerginerging economies of Asia. India has also echo the trend with over 5 million private security personnel, a figure that i exceeds the police, army, air force and the navy put together. In China, private guards are forecast to grow from the current 3 million to 5 million in the coming years. Not only is this trend evident in the Middle East and growing economies of Asia, but also across the US and the UK and in most Latin American countries. The US employs approximately 1.5 and 2 million private security personnel, outnumbering the public police by almost three to one (Abrahamsen Williams 2009). Similarly, the private security personnel in the UK outnumber the state police by a ratio of two to one. This growth is also reflected in the Latin American countries, African countries and even across Central and Eastern Europe. The resurgence is clearly evident across the world as countries such as Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia and the Czech Republic continue to witness growth of private policing witnessing growth in this sector. Almost all countries now have their private security personnel exceeding the police number. A further trend that has been observed and has perhaps been under-theorized or under-evaluated is the increasing emergence of transnational policing. Besides privatization of policing, there has been an expansion in cooperation between member states in areas of policing (Button 2012). Traditional forms of cooperation based on distribution of information through bodies such as the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) have now been transcended by organizations such as the European Criminal Police Office (Europol) (Button 2012, p. 25). In addition, there has been an increase in information sharing and the exportation of ideas among private security firms. For example, corporations such as Corrections of America and Wakenhut exportation have exported their ideas to the UK and Australia (Steden Sarre 2007). However, in some countries, private policing is still at its infancy. For example,In n Greece, the ratio between the private and public security personnel remains relatively small. This can be attributed to the security market that barely existed in Greece until the late 1990s when legislation that mandated some of the key requirements for a licensed security firm was passed (Steden Sarre 2007). Other countries with a relatively low private security to police ratio include Italy, Portugal, Malta, Cyprus and Spain. Most of these countries still make more use of the police officers than private security guards. Nonetheless, the momentous growth of private policing is inevitable and is occurring across the globe. Concerns/controversies over private policing Traditionally, the state has been seen as a monopoly in crime prevention and control (Button 2012). However, evidence has emerged that have raised questions regarding the state’s monopoly in policing. Evidence have pointed to the increasing ‘pluralization’ or ‘fragmentation’ of policing as seen with the increasing involvement of the private sector and voluntary organizations in crime prevention and control. This raises key questions such as: does the state still have a monopoly in policing given the increasing fragmentationOr rather it can be questioned: did it ever have a monopoly given that the fragmentation in policing is not a new phenomenonThe only thing that is new is the increasing fragmentation and the expansion of private security. Whilst the pervasiveness of these private firms may signal the state’s failure in addressing the most basic demands for security, it should not be viewed as weakening of the state’s role. It does not necessarily mean that the state is dying but rather diversifying and developing. Encouraging private personnel to become more involved in crime control is to support the state’s activities by allowing these individuals to become auxiliaries of the state as opposed to becoming rivals (Sarre 2002). Of course, there are concerns with this trend of privatization of policing with the greatest dangers being the subversion of public interests into profit maximization. Another concern relates to the fact that privatization results in more unequal access to protection and security with differential treatment in the provision of security services to the rich and the poor (Stenning 1994). A further danger is that private policing may lead to the erosion of the cherished notions of liberty, human dignity and privacy which may eventually results in an intolerably controlled and regulated society It is clear that the state’s role is changing. The increasing fragmentation of policing is evidence of a new social world where governance is no longer monopolized by the states, but rather one in which the rein of power is taken over by the private sector. there is a dispersion of power more to the private sector. The hope of many is for governance to be controlled by the local communities. However, the reality is the emergence of a pervasive and intrusive corporate governance where in capital interests become the priority and are more pursued than that the interests of the local communities (Ndlovu-Gatsheni 2007). Further, there is the it is the possibility that the state might slowly wither away and that the proliferation of private security firms may pose threat to the state’s sovereignty. Other problems relate to issues such as the lack of transparency and accountability and political control over the operations of these private firms. The fundamental goal of outsourcing such service is obviously to protect the citizens from harm and against human rights violations. Whereas the outsourcing of security services to private firms is justifiable, it may be subject to violent manipulations. One variant to this manipulation can arise through coercion towards prospective clients by the private security firms with the aim manipulating them to buy into their services. Another maipulation can arise where these firms invite others to commit crime in order to increase demand for their protection. There is a possibility that the private security may also end up creating ‘security enclaves’ as their availability in the open market allows the wealthy and ruling elites to buy more of their services than the less-priviledged counterparts hence running counter to the social bonds considered essential to security (Karsent Volker 2000). In fact, the so called ‘security enclaves’ have emerged in the US. This is a clarion call to pay attention to isssues of accountability for attention to paid more on control and accountability especially given the increasing fragmentation and privatization. But, as argued by Les Johnston (1992), some of these concerns are not unique and do not constitute compelling arguments against private policing. For example, the concern over the subversion of public interests into profit maximization is not unique. This concern is also evident with the public police where corruption and political interests have led to public disservice. Criticism of erosion of state’s sovereignty might not necessarily be true as the private security sectors have often acted under the government’s control. For example, Siera Leone is far from entirely private as the government still plays a key role by integrating public forces and setting the legal framework. Future of private security market Nonetheless, there is a clear momentous growth of the private security sector. The massive growth is evidence of expansion of this type of market. In fact, the industry’s global turnover was maintained during the recessionary period indicating the high demand for this type of service across the globe. In 2007, the global security service market was valued at $136 billion and in 2009, it was estimated at $152 billion (Steden Sarre 2007). The future for private security firms seems promising given the increasing demand of security services driven by the rise upsurge in conflicts, war and human right violations across various sectors of the globe. The commercial private security market is currently estimated to be $165 billion and is forecast to grow at a rate of 18% per anum into the foreseeable future. Despite the recent decision made by the US DoD to reduce reliance on support service contractors to pre-9/11 levels, the global market for private security services is anticipated to continue to grow to reach $218.4 billon in 2015 (Tzifakis 2012). However, much of this growth would be mainly concentrated in the emerging economies. What was once a â€Å"quiet revolution† has grown in size and demand to become a global actor in in the provision of security services. Conclusion There is no doubt that the privatization of policing has become a reality. This is evident with the proliferation of private security actors across the globe with activities that range from manned guarding to surveillance and risk analysis to even military combat. The increasing fragmentation has clearly been triggered by several key developments: the emergence of neoliberal ideas; second the increasing commodification of security; third, the global assemblages and risk based thinking; fourth, the transformations that took place during the post-cold war period, and the fourth, emergence of the â€Å"privatization revolution†. lso, the increased emphasis on specialization of personnel, the geographical fragmentation and the increasing recognition of the role of private sector in global governance have no doubt played a significant role towards this trend. All these processes have been central to the growing fragmentation and globalization of private security. However, these changes have fueled controversies. On the one hand, it has helped secure the transition to democracy by providing for a stronger presence of security forces in states under threat of instability. On the other hand, it has had exclusionary effects by increasing the division between the rich and the poor which in the long-run can be detrimental to its legitimacy. Other concerns highlighted include the subversion of public interests into profit maximization; erosion of cherished notions of liberty, human dignity and privacy; and threat to state’s sovereignty. In the midst of these changes, states have a greater role to play. With development of more diverse forms of policing, governments have the central responsibility of coordinating and regulating all policing activities, both in the private and public agencies. Government must serve as a central anchor point ensuring multi-agency networking and efficacy, equity and accountability of all agencies, both private and public. Accountability can perhaps be achieved by bringing all the policing practices under the control of democratic institutions such as citizen boards, commissions and ‘watchdogs’ at the local, national, provincial and regional levels. This would ensure equity, efficacy, legitimacy and accountable of all security actors. Reference Abrahamsen, R. and Williams, M., 2009. Security beyond the state: global security assemblages in international politics. International Political Sociology, vol. 3, pp. 1-17 Abrahamsen, R. and Willliams, M.C., 2007. Securing the city: private security companies and non-state authority in global governance International Relations 21(2): 237–153 Abrahamsen, R and Michael C., 2006. Security Sector Reform: Bringing the Private In. Africa: Whither the African State. In: Private Security in Africa, edited by S. Gumedze. Pretoria:Institute of Security Studies, pp. 17–38 Adams, T.K., 1999. ‘The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict’, Parameters, Summer, pp.103-116. Ericson, R.V. and Kevin D. H., 1997. Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press Foucault, M., 1991. ‘Governmentality’, In: Burchell, G., Gordon., C and Miller, P. (eds) The foucault effect: studies in governmentality. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Garland, D., 2001. The Culture of Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press Golsby, M., 1998. Police and private security working together in a co-operative approach to crime prevention and public safety. SRM Australia Pty Ltd Kamensy, J.M., and Thomas J. B., 2004. Collaboration: Using Networks and Partnerships. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Little?eld. Karsent, R. and Volker, S., (Eds.), 2000. Private Organizations in Global Politics. Keku, P. and Akingbade, T., 2003. Industrial Security in Nigeria. Lagos: Authorhouse. Krahmann, E., 2002. Private firms and the new security governance. USA, Cambridge University Press Livingstone, K. and Hart, J., 2003. The wrong arm of the lawPublic images of private security. Policing and Society, vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 159-170 Lock., P., 1999. Africa, military downsizing and the growth in the security industry., Issues in Science and Technology. London: Routledge. Manning, P.K., 2006. The United States of America. In Plural Policing. A Comparative Perspective,. London: Routledge, pp. 98–125. Musah, A. and Kayode, F., 2000. Mercenaries: An African Security Dilemma. London: Pluto. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S.J., 2007. Weak States and the Growth of the Private Security Sector in Con?ict, Security and Development 6(1): 1–23 Prenzler, T., 2004. The privatization of policing. In Sarre, R and Tomaino, J., (eds) Key issues in criminal justice. Adelaide: Australian Humanities Press, pp.267-296 Sarre, R., 2002. Private police: the future of policing and the broader regulatory framework. University of South Australia Steden, R. and Sarre, R., 2007. The growth of private security: trends in the European Union. Security Journal, vol. 20, pp. 222-235 Stenning, P., 1994. Private policing-some recent myths, developments and trends. {viewed on 14th December 2013} available from http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/23/stenning.pdf How to cite A Critical Exploration Of The Increasing Fragmentation Of Policing, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Financial Accounting Ethics and Governance of Sunshine Ltd

Question: Discuss about the Financial Accounting Ethics and Governance. Answer: Introduction The statements which are prepared so as to provide the information related with the present financial position of the company and helps in the evaluation of the financial performance of the business during the time of reporting are known as financial statements. It is necessary that the financial statements should be prepared on the bases which are true as well as fair so that trust among the stakeholders of the company could be developed with the help of which they can take appropriate decision. The report is developed in relation with preparing appropriate set of financial statement for Sunshine Ltd. which is a large department store which is showing a consistent performance in the market from past few years and will be performing in the same manner in next 2 years. The general manager of the company is willing to transfer the profit of the last two years towards the further two years. The report is prepared to develop the understanding upon the ethical behavior as well as ethical dilemma of the accounting at the time when these duties are being discharged. Ethics and Governance The system of following all set moral as well as authenticated principles in the process of decision making is known as ethics. Business ethics is the framework in which the issues related with the decision making process as well as various moral issues that arise at the workplace are being resolved by taking the appropriate as well as unbiased decisions. These are applicable to both individual as well as organization (Denis Alajbeg, et. al., 2012). Corporate Governance is the legal framework in which all set of rules, regulations, policies and legal aspects of the company are being controlled. Behavior of the corporate or the business is being dictated by the principles of the corporate governance in the best interest of the stakeholders. Corporate governance helps in protecting the stakeholders interests with the effect of which decorum of the market could remain maintained (Byrne, et. al., 2007). Stakeholder Attached with the Present Practices Individual or group who is attached with the organization either directly or indirectly and gets impacted with each and every decisions of the business is known as stakeholder (Denis Alajbeg, et. al., 2012). Stakeholders are interested in the aspects, success as well as failure of the business. In the case presented general manager of Sunshine Ltd Kam Sunshine influence the accountant of the company Maria Mars to make certain manipulations in the accounts so as to ensure that the consistency of the profit could be provided to the organization (Most, et. al., 2015). Suggestion was made to Maria Mars to make changes in the depreciation methods which will lead to show fewer expenses and increase the level of profit in the books. Doing so will affect many of the stakeholders due to which ethical aspects as well as framework of the governance will directly get affect (Schreiber, 2016). Some of the stakeholders of Sunshine Ltd are: Investors: Investors are the individuals or the groups who has provided the financial support to the company (Michelon, et. al., 2015). With the decision of Kam Sunshine investors of the company will be directly affected. Making changes in the depreciation methods and reducing the expenses related with it and increasing the fictitious profit will lead to fooling the investors. As increase in the profit will attract more investors towards the business as they will think they are investing in the company which will consistently earn the profit for two years but on the other hand actual profit of the company will not be the same in the two years which will affect the investments of the investors (Marinovic, 2013). Government: Government is another stakeholder attached with Sunshine Ltd. which is concerned with the applied legal applications and regulations attached with the company as well as market (Zhou, et. al., 2012). There are certain set of government policies which have a huge impact on the business processes. These policies are directly concerned with the economic conditions of the business. Indulging in such fraudulent activities could lead Sunshine Ltd to oppose the compliance as well as allegations of the government. In this case principles of the corporate governance will be directly breached if the accounting standards will not be followed by Maria Mars (Arnold, et. al., 2013). Management: Management is the stakeholders who are directly attached with Sunshine Ltd as they manage the internal aspects of the company (Bogdanova, 2015). Management will directly get affected with the activities of the general manager Kam Sunshine as she is also a part of the management due to which trust of the employees will get reduced from the management and they will not be able work on the basis of the instructions provided by the management. Hence, with the misleading as well as fraudulent activity of one manager will affect the image of whole management working in Sunshine Ltd which will have great impact on the work process of the organization (Brockett, et. al., 2013). Suppliers: Suppliers are the stakeholders which help in managing the core operations of the business as the raw material is being provided by the suppliers with the help of which further processing related with the products and services are being processed by Sunshine Ltd (Hecimovic, et. al., 2011). Showing such fraudulent information to the people regarding the fictitious profit general manager of Sunshine Ltd will attract the suppliers to provide the goods on credit. And if the company will fail to generate the same amount of profit then loyalty will get affected as well as their payment will also get affected (Byoun, et. al., 2013). Customers: Customers are the external stakeholders who are termed as the most important part of the business as they are the one with whom the business processes are being completed and business continues to provide services in the market (Chang, 2011). Showing such type of false data will attract more people towards the business and when after two years when they will come to know the reality then the trust of the same will get affected. Customers attract toward the companies which are highly ethical but do not want to visit the companies who are indulged in the fraudulent activities and in the unethical practices (Basu, et. al., 2010). Ethical Issues An ethical issue is being observed in Sunshine Ltd and it could be evaluated that the same issue is being developed because of general manager as well as accountant of the company (Bodie, et. al., 2011). In such situation professional ethics of both general manager as well as accountant of the company are being questioned. Ethics is one of the most important aspect attached with any business, it is required that each and every employees working in the organization whether he is at the lower level or at the higher level should work on the path of following all set of ethical aspects an should ensure to deliver the true as well as authenticated services to the people as well as organization (Denis Alajbeg, et. al., 2012). In present case information related with a departmental store is being availed, Sunshine is a department store in which general manager of the company Kam Sunshine is concerned with the future profit of the company, reason behind it is the prediction of the economic shutdown in the years 2018 and 2019 (Byrne, et. al., 2007). Hence, Kam Sunshine provided direction to the accountant of the company Maria Mars to make changes in the future profit and to reduce the profit of the present two years which are 206 and 2017 and adjust the same in the next two years which are 2018 and 2019 (Denis Alajbeg, et. al., 2012). Doing so will help the company in maintaining the consistency in the earning capacity of Sunshine Ltd. Suggestions were made to Maria Mars to change the depreciation method so as to reduce the expenses of the company. According to the accounting standards no one has the right to make changes in the depreciation without providing proper set of reason and without any approval of the auditors and various other important members of the company (Most, et. al., 2015). Hence, it could be said that in this case general manager Kam Sunshine and accountant Maria Mars have failed to maintain the ethical procedures of the company. It could be interpreted that manipulation of the financial statements or transactions of the company so as to attract the interest of the stakeholders will be termed as an ethical issue (Schreiber, 2016). Governance Issue Governance helps the business in managing all the ethical, legal as well as regulatory frameworks and ensures that the compliance related with the market could be maintained. All the compliance related with the internal policies, procedures, external laws and regulations which are established by the government and various other regulatory bodies are being managed by the governance. Corporate governance helps in protecting the interest of the stakeholders and maintaining the decorum of the market (Michelon, et. al., 2015). In the case of Sunshine Ltd, general manager of the company was in the dilemma to maintain the conscience of the future for next two years which lead her to make the decision so as to manipulate the financial statements of the organization. According to the accounting standards no one in the organization is can change the depreciation methods without giving prior notice as well as explanation for the same (Marinovic, 2013). It is required that the disclosure of the changing depreciation from the past should be provided in the financial statements but this procedure was not being followed and the accountant of Sunshine Ltd, Maria Mars made the changes without giving any prior notice and made changes in the depreciation method. Hence, it could be said that in this situation Maria Max failed to follow the provisions and the accounting standards which lead to create governance issues for Sunshine Ltd (Zhou, et. al., 2012). Compliance Attached with the Accounting Standards As the normal wear and tear of the fixed assets the depreciation is being changed and is being changed at the obsolesce level of the fixed assets. In Sunshine Ltd depreciation method was being changed without giving any prior notice or making the entries in the financial statement which is an unethical practice in which accounting standards got violated (Arnold, et. al., 2013). There are certain accounting standards, according to the Australian Accounting Standard 1021 there are certain set of conditions in which the modification in the depreciation method could be made and these conditions are: Methods could be changed so as to make the financial statements true as well as fair These could be changed on the direction provided by the law as well as regulatory bodies. In case change in the accounting standards occurs then the depreciation methods could also be changed (Bogdanova, 2015) Suggestion on the basis of Australian Accounting Standards 116 According to the case presented in relation with the Sunshine Ltd there are various provisions which are being stated in the Australian Accounting Standards 116 which is property, plant and equipments, these are not being complied in. According to the AAS116 it is required that all set of information which influence the decision making aspects of the organization should be stated by the company or the authorities indulged in the same (Brockett, et. al., 2013). It could be AAS116 it could be suggested that the company should remain indulged in the auditing processes so as to gather appropriate set of information related with the financial statements. This will help in reducing the risk of occurrence of such type of activities at the workplace (Hecimovic, et. al., 2011). Conclusion Gathering information and analyzing all the aspects indulged in the case conclusion can be drawn that financial statements are one of the most important aspects for the organizations which helps in the decision making aspects. Hence it is required that the organization maintain the same in a proper manner. It could also be concluded that in the case of Sunshine Ltd both Kam Sunshine and Maria Mars have breached the accounting standards and it is required that the strict action should be taken in relation with the same as they have tries to attract the interest of stakeholders by providing false data. References Arnold, D., Beauchamp, T. and Bowie, N. (2013).Ethical theory and business. Boston: Pearson Education. Basu, A. and Drew, M. (2010). The appropriateness of default investment options in defined contribution plans: Australian evidence.Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, 18(3), pp.290-305. Bodie, Z., Kane, A. and Marcus, A. (2011).Investments. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Bogdanova, T. (2015). Ethical and moral aspects of financial information manipulation.Russian Journal of Entrepreneurship, 16(14), p.2149. Brockett, A. and Rezaee, Z. (2013).Corporate sustainability. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Byoun, S., Kim, J., Yoo, S. (2013). Risk Management with Leverage: Evidence from Project Finance. Journal Of Financial And Quantitative Analysis, Pp. 1-65. Byrne, A., Blake, D., Cairns, A. and Dowd, K. (2007). Default Funds in U.K. Defined-Contribution Plans (corrected).Financial Analysts Journal, 63(4), pp.40-51. Chang, Y. (2011). Does RFID improve firms financial performance? An empirical analysis. Information Technology and Management, Vol. 12(3), Pp. 273-285. Denis Alajbeg, Zoran Buba, Velimir onje. (2012). The efficient market hypothesis: Problems with interpretations of empirical tests. Financial Theory and Practice, vol 36, no 1, pp 53-72. Denis Alajbeg, Zoran Buba, Velimir onje. (2012). The efficient market hypothesis: Problems with interpretations of empirical tests. Financial Theory and Practice, vol 36, no 1, pp 53-72. Hecimovic, A. and Martinov-Bennie, N. (2011). The Differential Impact of the Force of Law Australian Auditing Standards.Australian Accounting Review, 21(2), pp.183-192. Marinovic, I. (2013). Internal control system, earnings quality, and the dynamics of financial reporting.The RAND Journal Of Economics,44(1), Pp. 145-167. Michelon, G., Bozzolan, S., Beretta, S. (2015). Board monitoring and internal control system disclosure in different regulatory environments.Journal Of Applied Accounting Research,16(1), Pp. 138-164. Most, W., Wadia, Z. (2015). Longevity plans: An answer to the decline of the defined benefit plan. Benefits Law Journal, vol 28, no 1, p 23. Schreiber, S. (2016). Defined benefit plan participants can receive lump sum and annuity under new rules. Journal of Accountancy, vol 222, no 6, p 68. Zhou, G., Zhu, X. (2012). Client Importance and Auditor Independence: The Effect of the Asian Financial Crisis.Australian Accounting Review,22(4), 371-383.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Symbolism Of Peal In The Scarlet Letter free essay sample

Essay, Research Paper The Scarlet Letter is a book of much symbolism. One of the most complex and misunderstood symbols in the book is Peal, the girl of Hester Prynne. Pearl, throughout the narrative, developes into a dynamic symbol- 1 that is ever altering. As the novel progresses, Pearl grows older, and it # 8217 ; s easy for the reader to desire to research some of the symbolism which Pearl comes to stand for throughout the novel. In the Scarlet Letter, Hester, for her wickednesss, recieved a vermilion A which she had to have on upon her thorax. This was the Puritan manner of handling her as a felon, for the offense of criminal conversation. The Puritan intervention continued, because as Hester would walk down the streets, she would be looked down upon as if she were a devil from Hell, and she would be called names. This would do her much mental torment and heartache. We will write a custom essay sample on Symbolism Of Peal In The Scarlet Letter or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page On the other manus, God # 8217 ; s manner of penalizing Hester for her wickedness was rather different from the physical item she wore: he gave her the penalty of a really alone kid who she named Pearl. This penalty from God was a changeless reminder to Hester of what she had done incorrect, and she could non get away from her girl as she did society. In this facet, Pearl symbolized God # 8217 ; s manner of penalizing Hester for criminal conversation. The manner Hester # 8217 ; s life was ruined for so long was the ultimate monetary value that Hester paid for Pearl. With Pearl, Hester # 8217 ; s life was one about neer filled with joy, but alternatively a changeless nagging. Pearl would hassle her female parent over the vermilion A which she had to have on invariably. And, Pearl would besides do her ain A to have on, and sometimes played games with her female parent # 8217 ; s, seeking to hit it with stones, or adorning it with bristly burrs. When Hester would travel into town with Pearl, the other kids would do merriment of her and Pe arl would shout back and throw soil at them, So, in this instance, Pearl symbolized the decimation of Hester’s societal life and mental province. Although Hester had so much problem with Pearl, she still felt that Pearl was her hoarded wealth. Pearl was truly the lone thing that Hester had in life, and if Pearl wasn # 8217 ; T in Hester # 8217 ; s life, Hester would about certainly have committed self-destruction. Hester proved this when she replies to the govenors sister about an invitation to the enchantresss meeting in the forests, # 8230 ; Had they taken ger off from me ( Pearl ) , I would hold willing gone with thee into the wood, and signed my name in the Black Man # 8217 ; s book excessively, and that with mine ain blood! So, it # 8217 ; s obvious that Pearl was Hesters chief ground to remain populating. Once in a piece, Pearl would convey joy to Hesters life, and that helped her to maintain on life. Pearl truly symbolized a rose to her female parent, but at other times she could be wilting. It was these times when she was wilting that brought Hester more heartache. One concluding manner Pearl symbolized something in the novel was her association with the vermilion missive. Pearl truly was the ultimate vermilion missive, because if Pearl had neer been born, Hester would hold neer been found guilty of criminal conversation, and therefore neer would hold neer had to have on that tangilble load upon her thorax. Without load, Hester would hold led a much better life than the one she had throughout the novel. In many different ways, through the full novel, Pearl was a beginning of many different sorts of symbolism and in a manner, boding. From being a rose, like the gate of the gaol, to stand foring the vermilion missive Angstrom she was sort of a load, yet love for Hester. And as a concluding note, Pearl was more than her female parents merely beginning or key, to survival and saneness.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Heres Every College That Offers 100% Financial Aid

Here's Every College That Offers 100% Financial Aid SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips One of the most important questions you will have to ask yourself during your college selection process is whether or not your top choice school is affordable for your family. Affordability has a huge impact on college decisions. Some students will luck out and be offered a nice scholarship by their school that will make things affordable. Others will win independent scholarships. Usually, though, both of these options for financing your education are based on merit, and there is a lot of competition. But did you know that some schools are committed to making sure all admitted students can afford to attend, regardless of whether they are scholarship recipients? Read on to see a list of colleges that meet full need, or provide for 100% of their students’ demonstrated financial need. What Does Demonstrated Financial Need Mean? Part of the application process is filling out a multitude of forms that colleges use to determine how much your family can reasonably afford to pay. The two most common forms are the FAFSA (short for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid) and the CSS Profile (short for the College Scholarship Service Profile). Other schools may have their own forms that they ask you to fill out. On these forms, you’ll have to state your parents’ income and assets, as well as your own (if you have any), and the number of dependents in your household. The government and colleges then run some calculations to decide what’s reasonable for your family to contribute to the cost of your education. Of course, this plan is not foolproof for getting the money you need for college. First of all, many families feel that the government and colleges do not do a very good job of determining how much they are able to pay. The calculations can be different from school to school, and just because an outside arbiter has decided that your family can â€Å"afford,† say, $15,000 per year, doesn’t mean that in reality they can. Many families feel they are in a difficult situation because their incomes are too high for the larger pools of financial aid but too low to be comfortable giving up such a large chunk of money. Of course, the situation is even worse for those who are planning on sending multiple kids to college. Additionally, just because you demonstrate financial need doesn't mean that you will get financial aid- or at least, as much as you need. Many schools simply cannot afford to give away as much financial aid as their students need. They instead give some money, but not enough to cover the cost. For example, let’s say your school costs $54,000 per year. You've been told that your family can afford to pay $20,000 per year- but in reality, that’s a stretch. That leaves you $34,000 short of full tuition. Your school offers to kick in $15,000. So you are left with a gap of $19,000, plus the $20,000 that you couldn’t really afford in the first place. This is why so many students are left with no option but to take out extensive private student loans, often leaving them riddled with massive debt for years after graduation. 100% Meet Need Schools Fortunately, there are some schools out there that are committed to staying affordable for all of their students. Colleges and universities that pledge to meet 100% of their students’ financial need are a relatively rare breed. There are currently fewer than 75 schools that will meet all of your financial need. The schools on the lists below make sure that you get the money you need (outside of your family’s calculated contribution, of course) through grants, loans, work study, and scholarships. Some have taken this generosity one step further and pledged that they will meet the full financial need of their students without requiring them to take out loans. What Does This Financial Aid Look Like? For the top schools listed below, financial aid will come 100% in the form of grants, scholarships, and work study. Grants and scholarships are financial gifts that do not need to be paid back. Work study means that these schools guarantee you will be given a job that will cover some of your costs. However, some of the schools listed below will also include loans as part of their financial aid packages. When a school considers your FAFSA and your aid package, they also determine your eligibility for federal loan programs. These loans need to be repaid, but if they are granted through your school, they count as part of your â€Å"100% financial aid program.† The most common federal loans that you will hear about being part of your financial aid package are as follows: Subsidized Stafford Loans: the government pays interest while you are in school and during your grace periods Unsubsidized Stafford Loans:you are responsible for the interest that accrues while you are studying Federal PLUS Loans:given to theparents of undergraduate students These loans are usually much better than private student loans because they tend to have lower interest rates, grace periods, convenient repayment plans, and loan forgiveness programs. However, there are limits to the amount that a student can borrow every year through federal loan programs. Therefore, some students will additionally be offered loans through their school. Though the rates on these loans are not usually quite as low-interest as federal loans, they tend to have lower interest rates than other private loans. The other big difference between schools that include loans as part of their 100% need-met financial aid programs and schools that leave a portion of your needs unmet and require you to find your own loans is that you qualify automatically for these loans if they are offered as part of your financial aid package. Receiving the loans is as easy as checking a box on your financial aid statement. What Kinds of Schools Meet 100% of Need? As you are looking over the lists below, you might start to notice a pattern.Most of these schools are well known for being excellent in their fields.It’s usually the top schools that are committed to and able to meet 100% of their students’ financial needs. There are a few reasons for this. The first is that, traditionally, these schools are attended by wealthier students. When many students are paying full price, and some even have family members making financial donations to the school, these schools will have more money to spread around to students who are not as well-off financially. Many of these schools also have larger endowments than the average university, which means there is more money to give to students who need it. Finally, meeting 100% of students’ financial needs has become a selling point for top schools that are competing for top students. Once one school started having this policy, others had to match it to stay competitive and continue being attractive to the best students. The bottom line is that you can attend a top school and have it be affordable. The Best of the Best: 100% Need Met Without Loans, Regardless of Income The following schools have the most generous financial aid packets. They are willing to meet 100% of your demonstrated financial need without making you take out loans, regardless of your family income. To illustrate what this means, let’s imagine two students going through a fictional financial aid process. Student A’s parents make $130,000 per year but have a couple of children currently attending college. After looking at their FAFSA, the schools below decide Student A’s parents can make a contribution of $30,000 per year toward average yearly fees of $50,000.Student A would, therefore, get the remaining $20,000 per year in financial aid through scholarships, grants, and work study. Student B’s parents, on the other hand, make just under $50,000 per year. After looking at their FAFSA, the schools below decide Student B’s family should not have to contribute financially. Student B is awarded the full $50,000 through scholarships, grants, and work study. All information below is taken from US News. Now, let's look at these crà ¨me de la crà ¨me schools: Harvard has one of the best financial aid programs out there. Amherst College Bowdoin College Brown University Colby College Columbia University Davidson College Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Northwestern University Pomona College Princeton University Stanford University Swarthmore College University of Chicago University of Pennsylvania US Air Force Academy US Naval Academy Vanderbilt University Washington and Lee University West Point Yale University Second Best: 100% of Need Met With No Loans for Some Incomes These schools will meet 100% of your financial need no matter what your family’s income is, but if your income is below a certain level, they will also make sure you don't have to take out any loans. Let’s consider Student A and Student B again to illustrate this. Student A’s parents can contribute $30,000 per year toward the $50,000 cost of tuition and living. To meet the $20,000 of need, Student A is offered $3,500 in Subsidized Stafford Loans and $2,000 in Unsubsidized Loans, while theparents are offered a PLUS Loan of $2,500. Student A is then offered the final $12,000 through a combination of scholarships, grants, and work study. Student B’s parents make less than $50,000. Almost all of the schools listed below require no financial contribution from Student B’s parents. Student B is offered the full $50,000 yearly cost through scholarships, grants, and work study. The following schools are taken from US News. Below are the schools that offer this kind of aid: Dartmouth is one of the schools that offers loan-free aid to some students. Cornell University Aid is loan-free if your parents' total income is less than $60,000 and total assets are less than $100,000. Dartmouth College Aid is loan-free if your parents earn less than $100,000. Your family will not be expected to make any financial contribution. Duke University Aid is loan-free if your parents earn less than $40,000. Your family will not be expected to make any financial contribution. Haverford College Aid is loan-free if your parents earn less than $60,000. Families making more than this threshold can expect small loans ranging from $1,500 to $3,000 a year. Rice University Aid is loan-free if your parents earn less than $130,000. Vassar College Aid is loan-free for students from "low-income families." Washington University in St. Louis Aid is loan-free if your parents earn less than $75,000. Wellesley College Aid is loan-free if your calculated family contribution is less than $7,000 and your parents earn less than $60,000. All other students qualifying for financial aid can expect to have a maximum of $15,200 in loans over four years. Williams College Aid is loan-free if parents earn less than $75,000 with "typical assets." 100% of Need With Loans Though these financial aid packets won’t seem as great compared with the non-loan ones above, the fact that these schools commit to meeting 100% of students’ demonstrated financial need is a rare thing. These schools expect students to take out some loans as part of their financial aid packagesbut will make sure that there are no gaps between what the aid package is worth and the cost of tuition. Let’s go back to our fictional students for a moment. Student A’s parents who earn $130,000 are expected to contribute $30,000 per year toward the $50,000 cost of attendance. Student A is awarded $3,500 in Subsidized Stafford Loans, $2,000 in Unsubsidized Stafford Loans, and a $3,500 loan directly from the school. Student A’s parents are also offered a $7,000 PLUS Loan. Finally, student A gets the opportunity to earn $2,000 per year in work studyand receives a grant for $2,000. By contrast, student B’s parents make less than $50,000 and are not expected to contribute anything up front. Student B is awarded $3,500 in Subsidized Stafford Loans, $2,000 in Unsubsidized Stafford Loans, and a $10,000 loan directly from the school. Student B is also offered $3,500 in work study. Student B’s parents get a PLUS loan of $10,000. The final $21,000 is awarded through grants and scholarships. Schools who offer students 100% needs met (with loans) financial aid include the following: USC is one school that meets 100% of financial need with loans. Barnard CollegeBates College Boston College Bryn Mawr College California Institute of Technology Carleton CollegeCase Western Reserve UniversityClaremont-McKenna College Colgate University College of the Holy Cross Connecticut College Colorado CollegeDenison CollegeEmory University (US only) Franklin Marshall College Georgetown University Grinnell College Hamilton College Harvey Mudd CollegeJohns Hopkins University Kenyon College Lafayette College Macalester College Middlebury College Mount Holyoke CollegeNortheastern University (US only) Oberlin College Occidental College Pitzer College Scripps CollegeSkidmore College Smith College Thomas Aquinas College Trinity College Tufts UniversityUCLA Union College University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill University of Notre Dame University of RichmondUniversity of Rochester (does not include Eastman School of Music) University of Southern CaliforniaUniversity of Virginia Wake Forest University Wesleyan University Final Thoughts: Colleges Offering 100% Aid The biggest thing that you can take away from this list is the knowledge that top colleges in the US are working hard to be affordable to all students. If you decide to apply to one of the schools listed above, you can do so with the confidence that you will neither have to come up with the money to finance it up front nor hunt down your own private student loans. And if you don’t see your top choice on this list, don’t be discouraged. More and more schools are working toward being able to cover 100% of their students’ financial needs. Many of the schools that aren’t there yet still have great financial aid packages. Even better, many of them offer merit-based scholarships that you might be eligible for. Also, keep in mind that you should always be on the lookout for outside, private scholarships to help fund your tuition. What's Next? The government can sometimes help with tuition costs, especially if you're from a low-income family. Check out our article to see whether you are eligible for a Pell Grant. As you consider where to apply to college, you might want to look at our list of cheap out-of-state colleges and the most expensive colleges in the country. Don’t be surprised by the surprise costs of college! Read this article to see what college really costs. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Friday, November 22, 2019

The Most Populated Countries in the World

The Most Populated Countries in the World The world is a populous place (7.6 billion people as of mid-2017) and ever-growing. Even as some regions of the world grow slowly or are even shrinking (the more developed economies), other regions of the world are growing quickly (the least-developed nations). Add in the fact that people live longer due to improvements in medicine and infrastructure (such as sanitation and water treatment), and Earth is expected to see an increase in population for decades to come. Its slower growth than in decades past but still going up. Key Takeaways: World Population Asia has three-quarters of the worlds population.Global population is increasing, though slower than in past decades.Africa will likely be the location of most of the worlds population growth for the rest of the century.The poorest countries are expected to grow the fastest, straining their governments to provide services. Population and Measures of Fertility One measure used to forecast population growth is based on the fertility of a nation or the size of families that people have. Replacement level fertility of a population is considered 2.1 children born to every woman in a country. If a nation has a 2.1 fertility rate, it is not growing at all, just replacing the people that it already has. In highly developed industrial economies, especially those where there are more aged and elderly people than young people, the fertility rate is near the replacement level or below. Part of the reason why developed economies have lower fertility is that women there have more opportunities to contribute to the economy and put off childbearing until later, after higher education and entry into the workforce. Women in developed economies also have fewer pregnancies during their teen years. The world overall fertility rate is 2.5; in the 1960s, it was around double that. In the 25 fastest-growing countries, the fertility rate is 4.7 to 7.2 births per woman, according to World Bank data. Percentage-wise, the world is growing about 1.1% per year or 83 million people. The United Nations projects the world will have 8.6 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion in 2100, though the growth rate has been slowing for decades. Where Population Is Growing The most populous area of the world is Asia, as its home to three of the top four and half of the top 10 most populated nations (placing Russia in Europe). Sixty percent of the worlds people live in Asia, or about 4.5 billion. More than half of the expected population growth of 2.2 billion people by 2050 will be in Africa (1.3 billion), and Asia will likely be the No. 2 contributor to the world population growth. India is growing more quickly than China (which is projected to be relatively stable until 2030 and then fall slightly thereafter) and likely will take over the No. 1 spot on the list after 2024, when both countries are expected to have 1.44 billion people. Elsewhere on the planet, growth is forecast to be more modest, closer to 1% than 2%. Africas increase in population over the coming decades will be due to high fertility rates there. Nigeria is poised to take over the No. 3 location on the most populous countries list by 2030, as each woman there has 5.5 children in her family. Population growth is expected to be high in the least-developed nations of the world. Of the 47 least-developed countries, 33 are in Africa. The UN expects this large amount of growth in the poorest countries to strain these countries ability to care for the poor, fight hunger, expand education and health care, and provide other basic services. Where Population Is Shrinking   The UNs projections for 2050 show only one region actually decreasing in population, Europe, especially some countries in eastern Europe, where numbers could fall more than 15%. The United States population is projected to fall as well when based on UN fertility projections, but longer life expectancies and immigration keep the population on the rise slightly in forecasts, according to Pew Research. The UN noted in its 2017 report: The ten most populous countries with below replacement fertility are China, the United States of America, Brazil, the Russian Federation, Japan, Viet Nam, Germany, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Thailand, and the United Kingdom (in order of population size).   Most Populous Countries These nations each have a population of more than 55 million and together represent about 75% of the worlds residents. The data are estimates from mid-2017: China: 1,410,000,000India: 1,339,000,000United States: 324,000,000Indonesia: 264,000,000Brazil: 209,000,000Pakistan: 197,000,000Nigeria: 191,000,000Bangladesh: 165,000,000Russia: 144,000,000Mexico: 129,000,000Japan: 127,000,000Ethiopia: 105,000,000Philippines: 105,000,000Egypt: 98,000,000Vietnam: 96,000,000Germany: 82,000,000Democratic  Republic of the Congo: 81,000,000Iran: 81,000,000Turkey: 81,000,000Thailand: 69,000,000United Kingdom: 62,000,000France: 65,000,000Italy: 59,000,000Tanzania: 57,000,000South Africa: 57,000,000 Source United Nations Population Division World Population Prospects

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Social work research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Social work research - Essay Example Early diagnosis and interference in toddlers with learning disorders makes a considerable development in self-confidence and communal capability, which facilitates them in opening doors of chances in school and in the field of work.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Perin (1990) has shown in his work that the students with learning disabilities have above average or high intellectual capability. If they are provided with suitable support and instructions, then they can succeed in college academic programs. The community care has been provided to the students with learning disabilities in New York. The faculties of City University of New York (CUNY) and State University of New York (SUNY) have emphasized on the need of the students with learning disabilities (Perin, 1990, p. 2). Adams, Dominelli and Payne (1998) have debated that the communal worker’s main concern is ensuring that the public can handle or deal sufficiently with their lives. Under this approach, the community workers do not approve a theraupetic-helping role. Their involvements are much more practical –generally passing on information about sources and potentials (Adams, Dominelli and Payne, 1998, p. 4). The stress on effects in the present competency –based strategies to social work is reliable to an ethical point of view that ignores procedures. The practitioners essentially want to avoid this position that follows the anti-oppressive strategies (Adams, Dominelli and Payne, 1998, p. 8). Humphries (2000) portrayed that in a social model, disabilities arise from society’s breakdown to meet the obligations of the disabled individuals. It has been debated that conventional positivist and empirical research examples are repressive and alienating to loads of research subjects. It often deprives people and not leads to any development to their material situations (Humphries, 2000, p. 110). Lowes and Hulatt

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Gay marriages in the Military Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Gay marriages in the Military - Essay Example In case of the military though, at first gay and lesbian marriage and adoption were considered stigma and a taboo which may even result in losing employment of the person who indulges in same sex affairs. But with time and passage of antidiscrimination laws, it is becoming a norm and people are having a rather favorable approach towards this issue. Citizens in general and women in particular, were more likely to favor gay marriage and adoption within the military than were men. Gay marriage support groups were campaigned mostly by Liberal and Democratic political parties and their followers, especially those who supported ENDA and military. ENDA stands for Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which is a statutory-legislation presented by the U.S Congress. This act outlawed and restricted discrimination and non-employment on the basis of sexual orientation, it especially applies to the religious fanatics who deprive gays of their fundamental employment rights. On the other hand, the Con servatives and Republican groups antagonized this issue and were homophobic towards gay relationships. (Zimmerman & Wilcox, 2007). The change in attitude of military towards gay and lesbian alliances, arise from the very fact that the hectic army lifestyle, demands and objectives of warfare actually support their Homosexual identity. Sexual orientation is considered no more a measure of a service man’s merit and performance. Homosexuals are as good soldiers as heterosexuals, which is the advent of a rights based military service in which gay rights are identified on an equal opportunity basis. Gay marriages in the military are no more a cause for exclusion; self identified gay couples used to hide their identities because of rejection and lack of constitutional support. But now-a-days it is a common practice within the military. Since All the

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Organisation for Facilitating Globalization - IMF and World Bank Essay Example for Free

Organisation for Facilitating Globalization IMF and World Bank Essay The fund is an autonomous organization affiliated to United Nations Organisation. Starting from the initial membership of 31 countries at the time of inception, the Fund has a membership of 186 countries. It is financed by various participating countries with each country’s contribution fixed in terms of quotas according to the relative importance of the national income prevalent in the country and international trade. The total financial resources of the fund is equal to the quotas of all the countries combined together. The contributed quota of a country determines its borrowing rights and voting strength. The following are the functions of International Monetary Fund: 1.Monitoring economic and financial developments of its members; 2.Providing machinery for international consultations; 3.Providing machinery for altering sometimes the par value of currency of a member country; 4.Functioning as a short term credit institution; 5.Lending institution in terms of foreign exchange; 6.Providing machinery for the orderly adjustment of exchange rates and 7.Functioning as a reservoir of the currencies of all the member nations who can borrow the currency of other nations. 8.Granting loans for financing current transactions other than capital transactions; World Bank: The International Bank of Reconstruction and Devlopment popularly known as the World Bank was formed as a part of the deliberations at Brettonwoods during 1945. It was floated in order to give loan to member countries initially for the reconstruction of their war ravaged economies and later for the development of the economies of the poorer member countries. The World Bank provides its member countries long term investment loan on reasonable terms. World Bank has granted many loans for financing specific projects. During the recent years, it has also been engaged in giving structural adjustment loans to the heavily indebted countries. The World Bank is an inter governmental institution, corporate in form whose capital stock is entirely owned by its member governments. The World Bank group consists of the following: †¢World Bank; †¢International Development Association; †¢Inernational Finance Corporation; †¢Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency †¢International centre for settlement of Investment disputes. Reference: http://classof1.com/homework-help/international-economics-homework-help View as multi-pages

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Language Barrier for Puerto Ricans :: Caribbean History Language Essays

The Language Barrier for Puerto Ricans "Pollito, Chicken Gallina, Hen Lapiz, Pencil y Pluma, Pen. Ventana, Window Puerta, Door Maestra, Teacher y Piso, Floor I sing in English, I sing in Spanish, so all my friends can understand." The issue of language is central to the Puerto Rican experience in the United States. Living in a land where the dominant language is English, this Spanish speaking population is involved in a historical struggle to overcome the language barrier. Among other things, their unfamiliarity with the English language has been a major obstacle to the progression of the Puerto Rican people as a whole. The inability of Puerto Rican’s to speak English has served to exacerbate their situation in the United States; a situation where they are already met with discrimination simply for being foreigners. In the classrooms, Puerto Ricans have met only minimal success, largely due to their inability to properly communicate with teachers and peers. In the workplace, Puerto Ricans have historically been given only menial jobs. Due to their inability to speak English, many Puerto Ricans are unable to conduct themselves in job interviews, fill out application forms, or communicate with customers. As a result, the more competitive job fields show an under-representation of Puerto Ricans. Finally, many Puerto Ricans find it difficult to conduct themselves in places such as hospitals, courtrooms, and post offices due to the language barrier. This leads to the issue of bilingualism. Should the mainstream environment of the schools and workplace of America consist of two languages? T his issue has been debated for many years. This paper focuses on the issue of bilingualism in Hartford, while also looking at the context under which Puerto Ricans in Hartford find themselves in their current situation. These issues are examined with the use of historical fact, along with information and sentiments on current events in the Hartford community concerning the issue of bilingualism and culture. Puerto Rican History In the year 1508, the Spanish arrived in Puerto Rico and began the Spanish colonization of the island. At this time, the island was called Boriquen and was inhabited by an Indian tribe called Tainos. During this process, the Spanish established their way of life on the island while decimating the Tainos in terms of population due to Spanish disease, slavery and oppression.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Comparative Essay- Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. Dubois

Kelly Carnevale Period 2 September 2012 Comparative Essay BOOKER T. WASHINGTON & W. E. B. DUBOIS Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois were two men that drastically altered the face of Civil Rights. Both had a strong hand in education and were dynamic figures of the Progressive Age. While they both were figure heads in the social improvements in African American lives, their strategies of achieving change were very different. The two men had very different upbringings. Washington was born as a slave in Virginia in 1856. He lived in a one-roomed log cabin.Dubois was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts in a town made up of 5,000 whites, with only 50 blacks. As for education, both men were highly advanced. Washington attended Hampton Normal Agricultural Institute in Virginia and graduated with high marks, eventually becoming a professor there. Dubois attended Great Barrington High School and became the sole black student to graduate. He eventually went on to attending Harvard Law School and became the first black man to earn a PhD there. Over the course of their lives, both grew to become very accomplished men.Washington became the founder of Tuskegee Normal & Industrial Institute and wrote the Atlanta Compromise. He was also the first black man invited to the White House. Dubois became the founder of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and won a Lenin Peace Prize as well as his many academic successes. Both men were very large figures in civil rights in the late 19th century. However they had very different views when it came to the philosophical approach of achieving these rights.Washington believed that blacks should accept racial discrimination for the time being and concentrate on socially furthering themselves through hard work. He believed that African Americans could earn the respect and civil equality that they desired from whites by having education in physical skills and high virtues. Dubois, while agreeing that African Americans should improve their education and further themselves in society, was outraged by racial injustice and inequality and demanded his rights instead of just excusing the racism.The 19th century was blessed to have such men as Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois. Without these historical figures, who knows where African Americans would be today. If these men lived today they would be overwhelmed to see that they made a change in society, that today blacks and whites are friends in society, that they have equal rights, can work the same jobs, read the same books, and live in the same neighborhoods as the white men, and we even have a black president.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Quick warm Essay

Station 1:  Here, I will be doing a quick warm up which means I will start jogging for about 30 seconds so that my muscles can start to work slowly doing this will help me to have an easier time while doing my stretches in the next stage because if I suddenly stretch a muscle that I haven’t worked on then I will have to have my P.E. kit and my trainers on which means from now on till the end of the circuit I will have to apply the safety rules to my circuit and I also have to have all the equipment needed to complete the circuit. (2 minutes break after this>>the 2 minutes of break is not included in the real exercise time) Station 2:  This is more important then the first one because this is where I will be doing my stretches. There are many stretch types that I can do but firstly I have to start the stretching from my neck down to my legs which means I will firstly stretch my neck I can do this by doing some movements such like if you turn your head from right to left or if you face up and then face down then you will start working your muscles. Your neck should be stretched because in badminton the shuttlecock usually goes up high and you will need to make a sudden move with your neck muscles to see where it is going so that you can hit it back to the opposition. After this there is another important body part that needs to be stretched and that’s my arms. Stretching of my arms will take 20 seconds so it is 10 seconds for each arm after this I will start to stretch my legs and that will take 30 seconds so its 15 seconds for each leg. These two parts are important because these are the only parts that badminton is played with and the reason of stretching these is because if I hurt any muscles in these parts I cannot play badminton till I recover and recovery depends on how bad it is. (2 minutes break time) Station 3:  In this part of the circuit the exercise that I will do is running because if I improve my speed I will be able to act quickly and this will allow me to run around the court faster so that I can reach the shuttlecock straight away. This will also increase my stamina if I do it often. In this same section I can also stretch my arm muscles while running because my leg muscles will already be stretching when I am running because I will be working them a lot. (2 minutes break time) Station 4:  Here, I will practise with free weights for around 2 minutes and that is 1 minute for each arm. This will help my muscles to get better and stronger. If I get stronger I can hit the shuttlecock faster which means it will help me to win the game that I am playing and I can see the difference by doing another exercise after this and that exercise can be taking some shots. And if I can do it faster, then this means using free weights is a good way of warming up. Station 5:  In this one I will be standing against a wall or a friend and will be practising overhead shots so that this skill can also get better. This skill is always needed in a badminton game where you hold the racquet over your head and you watch or chase the shuttlecock as it comes down and you hit it very fast from above your head to above your opponents head. It usually goes over them and you get the points but sometimes opponents can not chase the shuttlecock that good and they just miss it and lose a point. This happened to me twice and it is also the other reason for me to practise these shots. Station 6:  Here I will be practising the most important thing in badminton. Serving. Serving is a very hard thing and can lose you a lot of points if you don’t know how to do it. For a serve you will have to keep the racquet below your waist and work your way up as you leave the shuttlecock that you will be holding in your other hand. Practising this will get you many points in the game because if you serve really good the opponents sometimes misses to hit the shuttlecock back to you. Station 7:  Here I will be taking shot from one side of the court to the hoops that are on the other side of the court. This will help me to measure the speed that I should be hitting the shuttlecock with and by doing this I will be able find out where the shuttlecock goes when I hit it from one place or another.  Station 8:  From here I will start jogging as I have finished the warming up so this means that I can also take a few shots and keep on jogging till I feel that my muscles are back to normal or as relaxed as they can be. Station 9:  This is where I will be picking up all the equipment and putting them back to its place. Here I will also tell my teacher that I have completed my circuit and that it went fine (or if there was any problems, then they should be told to the teacher). Evaluation:  In this coursework I did everything that I was asked to do and my graphs also gave me good and accurate results which have proved my circuit right. There could have been better things in this coursework but my illness made me lose 3 double PE lessons where it was talked about the coursework and the lack of time we had really made it poor. Even though the coursework was a disaster I made a very good effort in putting everything together. I am hoping that this will be a good essay.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Confusing I and Me

Confusing I and Me Picture this: Jesse Kasserman, a high school senior with a strong academic record and high hopes, walks into the office of Dr. James, an admission representative of XYZ University. â€Å"Thank you for inviting my mom and I to see the campus,† he says. The college representative cringes. Which is Correct? Jesse might have blown the interview already. Why? Jesse should have said â€Å"my mom and me.† Smart people everywhere agonize over the misuse of â€Å"I† and â€Å"me.† It’s one of the most common mistakes in word usage. People seem to fear the word â€Å"me†Ã‚  and  to many people, it sounds just as wrong to hear the sentence, â€Å"The secret is just between you and I.† But its correct.   â€Å"I† is a nominative pronoun and is used as a subject of a sentence or clause, while â€Å"me† is an objective pronoun and used as an object. Sound too technical? Then think of this: The trouble with â€Å"me† usually begins when speakers are stringing together two or more objects in a sentence. â€Å"I† is not an objective case word, but people try to plug it in as an object because it just sounds smarter. Examples All you have to do is leave out the second object. Look over these examples, and you’ll see it’s really simple. You might be tempted to say:WRONG: â€Å"Would you explain that to John and I?† But then, when you omit the other object, you’ll have:WRONG: â€Å"Would you explain that to I?† Now that just sounds silly. Try this: RIGHT: â€Å"Would you explain that to John and me?†RIGHT: â€Å"Would you explain that to me?† Practice Now practice with these: WRONG: Leave the decision to Laura and I.RIGHT: Leave the decision to me.RIGHT: Leave the decision to Laura and me. WRONG: Please join Glenna and I for lunch.RIGHT: Please join me for lunch.RIGHT: Please join Glenna and me for lunch. WRONG: It’s just between you and I.RIGHT: It’s just between you and me. WRONG: The group consists of Laura, Joe, and I.RIGHT: The group consists of Laura, Joe, and me. Dont forget, when composing an essay or any research paper, be sure to go back and proofread carefully.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Donald Trump Promises - List and Details

Donald Trump Promises - List and Details President-elect Donald Trump made a lot of promises while he was running for office in the 2016 election. Some political observers counted hundreds of Trump promises. Trump promised major action on everything from illegal immigration to coal mining to bringing jobs back from overseas to building a wall along the Mexican border to launching an investigation of his opponent in the presidential election, Hillary Clinton. Which promises has Trump kept in the days since he  took office on Jan. 20, 2017? Heres a look at six of the biggest, and probably the most difficult to keep, Trump promises. Repeal Obamacare This was a biggie for Trump and his supporters. Trump repeatedly called the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act, otherwise known as Obamacare, a disaster.   One thing we have to do: Repeal and replace the disaster known as Obamacare. Its destroying our country. Its destroying our businesses. You take a look at the kind of numbers that that will cost us in the year 17, it is a disaster. Its probably going to die of its own weight. But Obamacare has to go. The premiums are going up 60, 70, 80 percent. Bad health care at the most expensive price. We have to repeal and replace Obamacare. Trump has promised a full repeal of Obamacare. He has also promised to replace the program by expanding the use of Health Savings Accounts;  allowing policyholders to  deduct health insurance premium payments from their tax returns; and permit shopping for plans across state lines.   Build a Wall Trump promised to construct a wall along the entire length of the United States border with Mexico and then force Mexico to reimburse taxpayers for the cost. The president of Mexico, Enrique Peà ±a Nieto, has openly stated his country will not pay for the wall.  Ã‚  At the beginning of the conversation with Donald Trump, he said in August 2016, I made clear that Mexico would not pay for the wall. Clintons position on immigration was much different; she mocked the wall and supported a path to citizenship. Bring Jobs Back   Trump promised to bring thousands of job back to the United States that had been shipped overseas by American companies. He also promised to stop American companies from shifting positions overseas through the use of tariffs. I will bring jobs back from China. I will bring jobs back from Japan. I will bring jobs back from Mexico. Im going to bring jobs back and Ill start bringing them back very fast, Trump said. Cut Taxes On the Middle Class Trump has promised to drastically cut taxes on the middle class. A middle-class family with 2 children will get a 35 percent tax cut, Trump said. He promised the relief as part of a Middle Class Tax Relief And Simplification Act. Isn’t that nice? Trump said. It’s about time. The middle class in our country has been devastated. End Political Corruption in Washington His battle cry: Drain the swamp! Trump promised to work to end corruption in Washington, D.C. To do that, he said he would seek a constitutional amendment imposing term limits on members of Congress. He also said he would ban White House and congressional staffers from lobbying within five years of leaving their government positions, and place lifetime bans on White House officials lobbying for foreign governments. He wants to also prohibit foreign lobbyists from raising money for American elections. The proposals were outlined in his Contract With the American Voter. Investigate Hillary Clinton In one of the most startling moments in the 2016 presidential campaign, Trump promised to appoint a special prosecutor to investigate Hillary Clinton and the many controversies surrounding her. If I win, I am going to instruct my attorney general to get a special prosecutor to look into your situation, because there’s never been so many lies, so much deception,† Trump said during the second presidential debate. Trump later backed down, saying: â€Å"I don’t want to hurt the Clintons, I really don’t. She went through a lot and suffered greatly in many different ways, and I am not looking to hurt them at all. The campaign was vicious.†