Sunday, January 26, 2020

Obesity in the Southern United States

Obesity in the Southern United States Marion T. Stevens Introduction Obesity has emerged as one of the leading causes of death in the United States of America. In the Bible belt (Southern States) obesity is very common which complicates health and the economy as well as treatment to individuals. Furthermore, obesity in the southern states is a result of culture, economic status and ethnicity. According to Akil (2011), obesity is basically a manifestation of energy imbalance mainly defined as the balance between the consumed energy, by drink as well as food, and the energy expended through physical activity and metabolism. Obesity, which correlates to lifestyle behaviors, can be characterized by reducing levels of physical activity or increased consumption of diets that are energy-dense, or even both. Over the past three decades, the US has witnessed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity as well as reports on disparities among the population. With regard to the disparities in the prevalence of diabetes among the US population, the Southern States of the US record the highest obesity rates in the country based on the new report by the Institute for America’s Health. According to the report obesity rates increased in twenty eight states by 2010 with a decline only reported in Washington, DC. Out of the 11 states recording the highest rates, 10 of them are situated in the South, with Mississippi recording the highest rate for six consecutive years (World Health Organization, 2013). Statement of the problem There has been an increasing debate and the controversy over the appropriate intervention measures to be taken in order to curb the prevalence of diabetes in the southern states. The issue is whether the government should intervene and take a stand on the daily recommended dietary consumption. For instance, as a response to this and for the very first time, the Southern Obesity Summit, the largest regional obesity prevention unit, held its 7th Annual Southern Obesity Summit in November, 2013, drawing a majority of the participants from the sixteen southern states. Looking at it from a broader cultural perspective, the increased rate of diabetes can be attributed to the lifestyle of the Southerners and their nutrition. The high prevalence of obesity in the southern states of the US (the Bible Belt) poses challenges to both the government as well as health institutions. This phenomenon complicates the health and the economic situation of the region as well as the high cost of treatment. As pointed out in Wang and Beydoun (2007), the cost of treatment stood at $ 117 billion annually. Today, the cost has almost tripled (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). The CDC survey report goes further to indicate that over 30 percent of the population in the Southern States is obese. Studies have shown that obesity in these Southern States is mainly as a result of socio-economic factors, ethnicity, as well as the culture of the Southerners. Review of Literature According to the Institute for America’s Health Report (2010), obesity in America in 2008 cost the nation approximately $147 billion in weight-related medical bills that is double the amount in the previous decade. Parham and Scarinci (2007), point out that people with obesity have an annual medical bill of $ 1,429 higher than the normal-weight people. The leading states in the south for obesity rate include: Mississippi (33.8%), Alabama and Tennessee (31 % tie), West Virginia (31.3 %), Louisiana (31.2%), Kentucky (30.5%), Arkansas (30.1%), South Carolina (29.9%), and Michigan (29.4%) tied with North Carolina (29.4%) (United States Census Bureau, 2009). According to Akil (2011), the higher rate of obesity can be linked to socioeconomic factors such as income, poverty, and unemployment, among others. The study indicates that the higher rates of obesity were recorded among the Southerners as compared to the Northerners. The prevalence was highest in Mississippi, which also recorded the highest level of poverty with 21 percent of its residents living below the poverty line. Alabama and West Virginia, which rank second and third in obesity prevalence rates respectively, are both ranked the fifth poorest (Ezzati, Martin, Skjold, Vander Hoorn, Murray, 2006). Generally, the south has a poverty rate of 14 percent being the most impoverished part of the country (U. S. Census Bureau, 2009). The income disparities among the population is considered as a contributing factor to this trend in the US and more so in the Southern States. The southerners have limited access to healthy food with little purchasing power. The cultural lifestyle of the southerners predisposes them to obesity. Southerners enjoy feeding on fried food ranging from chicken, onions, green tomatoes, and pickles, to corn bread. Nutritional educators attribute the increased rate of obesity to the regional feeding habits. This situation is aggravated by poor physical exercise among the Southerners, since it is difficult for them to exercise outdoors when an opportunity arises, it is often hot, at times over 100 degrees, and humid. Furthermore, states such as Mississippi and Tennessee lack abundant sidewalks and have narrow roads, hence jogging and biking becomes hard for them (Wang Beydoun, 2007). Nutritional education is a significant contributor to the increased rate of obesity among the residents of the southern states of America. Nutrition educators have put concerted efforts in educating the people on the proper eating and exercise habits (Balluz, Okoro Mokdad, 2008). The majority of the population feed on junk food, fried food, and do not engage in regular physical exercise, thus predisposing themselves to obesity. For instance, Arkansas passed a body mass index-screening program, in elementary schools to assess weight and then send the results to the parents. Tennessee, on the other hand, encourages schools to purchase fresh ingredients from the local growers. In 2007, the state of Mississippi adopted certain nutritional standards for its school lunches. All these nutritional interventions are taken in a bid to combat this affliction (Powell, Stater, Mirtcheva, Bao Chaloupka, 2007). Methods The study used descriptive survey design where data was collected and analyzed (CDC, 2013). Since it is hard to study the whole population in the southern United States, the research sample was selected using random sampling technique. The following southern states were selected for the study: Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Colorado was also selected in the sample for comparison. The study was mainly qualitative, and qualitative data was collected and analyzed. Data was presented using texts, to describe the prevalence of obesity among the Southern Unites States. This research paper derives from secondary sources, mainly the obesity and obesity-related health studies conducted in the Southern States and the United States at large, and the above stated southern states in particular. Factual data has been retrieved from articles published in Peer Reviewed Health Journals as well as from world fact sheets. The study collected demographic data such as ethnicity, sex and geographic location. Data analysis was done using regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results and Discussion The research study found that obesity in the Southern States is exacerbated by inadequate significant policies to address issues of community design, such as suburban sprawl and sidewalks, as well as wider accessibility and affordability of healthy food options including the ‘urban grocery store gap’ (World Health Organization, 2013). The results indicated that there is a correlation between ethnicity and obesity in the southern United States. This high prevalence is mainly attributed to the lifestyle of southerners who mainly feed on fried foods. For instance, in 2004, a study by the University of North Carolina found out that majority of the food-shopping options in most part of the southern region fall under the category of ‘convenient stores’ since traditional grocery stores are situated too far away, hence the aforementioned gap. The lifestyle of Southerners is a predisposing factor to obesity due to their dietary habits. In addition, the high rate of o besity in the southern states is as a result of economic constraints. The majority of the states in the southern region are ranked among the poorest in the country (Ezzati et al, 2006). Colorado recorded the lowest rate of obesity, according to the study results (Akil, 2011). The researcher included Colorado in the study sample so as to check for any disparity and/or offer a comparison. The findings of this study provided a justification for hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between obesity and the Southerner’s nutrition education. Conclusion Deriving from the finding of this study it is evident that the rate of diabetes is highest among residents of the southern states of the United States. The causes are mainly attributed to socioeconomic factors, culture and lifestyle, as well as ethnicity. However, the US government has put in place policy measures to combat the affliction. The intervention measures are mainly skewed toward provisional of nutritional education and implementation of poverty reduction strategies. The health status was found to improve with the rise in incomes. The poorer people have a limited access to groceries and health care. Limitations of the Study Since it was hard to study all the states in the south, only a few states were selected for the study. Moreover, there could be other predisposing factors for obesity rather than those focused on by the researcher. The demographics of the study also need to be more detailed, the study did not address race and income levels nor did it cover the environment of green space available for exercise within the studies. Recommendation for further Research There is need for further research to check for any relationship between obesity and other factors such as education, gender, heredity, climate and age. Similar studies should be extended to other states in the north to establish other causal factors that could be leading to the increased obesity rates in the south as compared to the northern states. Routine (BMI) Body Mass Index calculation, weight, height and blood pressure should be conducted at all routine patient visits. If the BMI is above 85 percentile, initiate farther screening. Obesity warrants immediate attention; consider using the HEAT clinical practice guidelines (McAdams, 2010). The key to battling obesity is prevention in the early stages; this will be led by promoting health eating and exercise to the new generation of youth. References Akil, L. (2011). Effects of Socio-economic Factors on obesity rates in four southern states and Colorado. National institute of Health Journal. 21 (1): 58-62. Balluz, L. S., Okoro, C. A, Mokdad, A. (2008). Association between selected unhealthy lifestyle factors, body mass index, and chronic health condition among individuals 50 years of age or older, by race /ethnicity. Ethnicity Dis. 18(4):450–457. CDC, (2013) Health Disparities and Inequalities Report United States. Retrieved on February 20, 2014 from: Ezzati, M., Martin, H., Skjold, S., Vander Hoorn, S. Murray, C. J. (2006). Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys. J R Soc Med. 99:250–257. McAdams, Cynthia (2010). The environment and pediatric overweight: a review for nurse practioners. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22 (9), 460-467. Dio 10,1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00537.x Parham, G. P. Scarinci, I. C. (2007). Strategies for achieving healthy energy balance among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta. Prev Chronic Dis. 4(4): A97. Powell, L. M., Stater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y. Chaloupka, F.J. (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med. 44(3): 189–195. The Institute for America’s Health. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: United States Census of Bureau (2009). Cen-Stats Database. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: Wang. Y., Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 29:6–28. Word Health Organization. (2013). Obesity and overweight. Available at:

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Pe Assignment 1

Performance Task # 2- Direction: Answer the following: (answers shall be based on the assignment Video: Sayaw) Key point: the Spaniards came to the Philippines in the 16th century. They found out that dance and music were woven and is part of the Filipinos everyday life. Q. Where is it intertwined? 1. Courtship 2. Love 3. Politics 4. ____________________ 5_____________________ 6. _________________________ 7. ______________________ Key point: the Spaniards employ dances and music to introduce religion to Filipinos. Dance has become religious activity for feasts of saints and for praising. They introduce secular dances from Europe.The Filipinos assimilated it and it evolves in the Filipino culture. List down the European Dances introduced by the Spaniards in the Philippines. And the Filipino adaptation of the dances Follow the cue given. 8. La Jota- a social dance for special occasion for the Spaniards. Usually accompanied with string instruments. 9. La Jota Montavena – the Fili pino version characterized by fast and lively movement wherein waltz is a common step it is from the province of Tarlac. 10. La Jota Manilena- it is a version which is done in honor of the old city of Manila. 1. Valse/Waltz – a dance originally from Southern Germany introduced to the Philippines on the 19th century. It was also assimilated by the Filipinos and incorporated it to their own version. 12. Balitaw – a courtship dance from the Visayas 13. Carinosa – a courtship dance with characteristic use of fan and handkerchief. 14. Fandango – dance for special occasion such as wedding 15. Pandang Pandang – a version from Antique wherein a gecko went up the grooms trouser so he Stamped to remove the lizard without the crowds knowledge institutionalizing theStamping movement as part of the dance. 16. Fandango Sambalilo – a dance version where the guys try to pick up a hat on the floor with the use of his head. 17. Fandango sa Ilaw – a dan ce version from Mindoro wherein the ladies carry lighted oil lamps in their head and hands. 18. Habanera- a dance originally from Havana Cuba 19. Habanera de Sultera – a Filipino adaptation of this dance from Pangasinan which is the last dance of a couple before they get married. 20.Mazurka – a ballroom dance from Polland. 21. Mazurka Moderato- an adaptation of this dance wherein the couples gather informally, the steps Used are sangig, salok, step close step and redoba. 22. Mazurka Mindorena- the premiere dance of the elites in Mindoro which was popularized by our Our hero Don Antonio Luna. 23. Polka – originally a ballroom dance for grand social affair. 24. Maliket a Polka – an adaptation from Pangasinan, characterized by happy movement, a dance for Sto.Nino. 25. Polka sa Nayon – an adaptation from Batangas 26. Rigodon – popular ceremonial dances for the elite. 27. Rigodon – dance of the elite with the use of cabesera and costados a s position based on their Importance in the society. 28. ______________- a dance wherein the purpose is for the ladies to be seen by gentlemen, they try to Outdress each other, it was introduced in the 1850’s. Key point: the dances evolved and was integrated thereby creating a combination of different dances to form new dance. 9. Polkaval – a combination of polka and valse from Atimonan Quezon 30. Jotaval – a combination of Jota and Valse from Gumaca Quezon II. Essay 1. Give at least 5 Filipino researchers who contributed in the documentation and propagation of Philippine folk dance throughout the Philippines and the world. Cite their contribution. (10pts) 2. How did the rural folks assimilated the dances introduced by the Spaniards and patronized by the local elites as part of their lives? Where was the transmutation based? What has become of these dances? Answer in a 5 sentence paragraph only. (5pts)

Friday, January 10, 2020

Short Argumentative Essay Topics Explained

Short Argumentative Essay Topics Explained Narrative essays don't have such arguments. Argumentative essays are a few of the best that you can write as a student. An argumentative essay doesn't include unsubstantiated opinions. Writing a persuasive, argumentative essay can be challenging, and at times it can find a little confusing. A very good persuasive argument will use the latest data and data from verified sources. First of all, attempt to select an argumentative essay topic that inspires you and can provide you enough materials to research. Look through the list of topics with care and get started making a mental collection of the evidence you're able to use on topics you want. Thus, the topic is going to have to be well thought out because it is going to determine the standard of your paper. Remember you will want to analyze arguments and evidence for your essay to appear good. Remember an argumentative essay is based more on facts instead of emotion. A conclusio n is, without doubt, the most significant portion of the argumentative essay since you can either support the fantastic impression or destroy it entirely. It gives the overall verdict of the argument. When you get rid of an argument, odds are you only used opinion to hold up your position. You're going to need to select a topic first, but your topic ought to be something that has two conflicting points or distinct conclusions. You will have to back up your viewpoint with well-researched facts and data too. Short Argumentative Essay Topics Can Be Fun for Everyone If you're looking for examples of argumentative essays, here's a sample that will help you out! Popular themes for academic papers can be seen on our site too. Short essays are important when one is hoping to present an important topic without needing to compose plenty of words or using numerous pages. You may continue to keep your argumentative essays for your upcoming job portfolio in case they're highly graded. What About Short Argumentative Essay Topics? Instead of just immediately writing about your argumentative essay topic, you first have to think about what it is that you are likely to put back on your pape r through a procedure of brainstorming and pre-writing. If you are going to compose an argumentative essay, the very first thing you have to do is to understand its principal features and structure. It is essential to decide on a great topic so as to compose a good paper. Each suggestion was supposed to highlight a particular field of inspiration. In such cases, you don't wish to go for topics that require a great deal of research and preparation. You will need to conduct a thorough research and propose your own remedy to the present issue. One particular important and appropriate subject is technology. The issue is that everybody's interpretation of what makes a great society differs. The Battle Over Short Argumentative Essay Topics and How to Win It The topic has to be interesting, the topic has to be essential and finally the topic has to be informative. Quite frequently, the very best topic is one which you truly care about, but you also will need to get well prepare d to research it. The key to select a great topic for an argumentative essay is to choose a subject where there's a lot of debates on topics or stances. There are a few great topics to look at when picking a topic for your argumentative essay. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. Every argumentative essay ought to be based on a topic which can be debated. Moral argumentative essay topics are a few of the simplest to get carried away with. Recent argumentative essay topics that are related to society is going to do. College application essay topics are a crucial portion of an entertaining and compelling bit of writing. If you should compose your essay a couple of days before the deadline, being focused on your assignment may not be sufficient. If you must compose your whole essay in 1 day, do your very best to give yourself breaks so you don't burn out. There are many steps which you should take to be able to compose an exceptional essay. Is it true that the paparazzi help or hinder the goal of completely free press. The first thing you're likely to have to do is to choose a topic that has more than one clear side. When you're picking your topic, remember that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. For instance, there isn't any way you'll be able to argue on the subject of whether humans walk on two legs because it is a known fact with no attached debate. The War Against Short Argumentative Essay Topics Bear in mind that you could make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. Before you turn in your assignment, you are going to want to appear over it one final moment. Revisit a minute in your life which you feel you won't ever have the ability to forget. Second, talk what you shouldn't do instead of what should be done. Quite frequently, college essay topics prove to be more challenging than students expected, therefore it may be reasonable to request assistance. The role of assigning an essay to middle school students is to make awareness and permit them to develop writing skills. They should be allowed to pray in school. Tons of student s put on a uniform.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Sociology

Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning are two different approaches to conducting scientific research. Using deductive reasoning, a researcher tests a theory by collecting and examining empirical evidence to see if the theory is true. Using inductive reasoning, a researcher first gathers and analyzes data, then constructs a theory to explain her findings. Within the field of sociology, researchers use both approaches. Often the two are used in conjunction when conducting research and when drawing conclusions from results. Deductive Reasoning Many scientists consider deductive reasoning the gold standard for scientific research. Using this method, one begins with a theory or hypothesis, then conducts research in order to test whether that theory or hypothesis is supported by specific evidence. This form of research begins at a general, abstract level and then works its way down to a more specific and concrete level. If something is found to be true for a category of things, then it is considered to be true for all things in that category in general. An  example of how deductive reasoning is applied within sociology can be found in a 2014 study of whether biases of race or gender shape access to graduate-level education. A team of researchers used deductive reasoning to hypothesize that, due to the prevalence of racism in society, race would play a role in shaping how university professors respond to prospective graduate students who express interest in their research. By tracking professor responses (and lack of responses) to imposter students, coded for race and gender by name, the researchers were able to prove their hypothesis true. They concluded, based on their research, that racial and gender biases are barriers that prevent equal access to graduate-level education across the U.S. Inductive Reasoning Unlike deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning begins with specific observations or real examples of events, trends, or social processes. Using this data, researchers then progress analytically to broader generalizations and theories that help explain the observed cases. This is sometimes called a bottom-up approach because it starts with specific cases on the ground and works its way up to the abstract level of theory. Once a researcher has identified patterns and trends amongst a set of data, he or she can then formulate a hypothesis to test, and eventually develop some general conclusions or theories. A classic example of inductive reasoning in sociology is  Ãƒâ€°mile Durkheims study of suicide. Considered one of the first works of social science research, the  famous and widely taught book, Suicide, details how Durkheim created a sociological theory of suicide—as opposed to a psychological one—based on his scientific study of suicide rates among Catholics and Protestants. Durkheim found that suicide was more common among Protestants than Catholics, and he drew on his training in social theory to create some typologies of suicide and a general theory of how suicide rates fluctuate according to significant changes in social structures and norms. While inductive reasoning is commonly used in scientific research, it is not without its weaknesses. For example, it is not always logically valid to assume that a general principle is correct simply because it is supported by a limited number of cases. Critics have suggested that Durkheims theory is not universally true because the trends he observed could possibly be explained by other phenomena particular to the region from which his data came. By nature, inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the early stages. Deductive reasoning is more narrow and is generally used to test or confirm hypotheses. Most social research, however, involves both inductive and deductive reasoning throughout the research process. The scientific norm of logical reasoning provides a two-way bridge between theory and research. In practice, this typically involves alternating between deduction and induction.