Monday, September 30, 2019
Jesus and the Law: An Ancient Text in a Postmodern Context In looking at Jesus and the law we must acknowledge that Jesus is the fulfillment of the old covenant. Every theme in the Old Testament points forward towards Jesus. The law is the character of God written in a language which human beings can understand. The law was given to show us the holiness of God and to demonstrate manÃ¢â¬â¢s imperfection. The entire reason for the law was so that we would understand that through our own efforts and abilities, we can never reach GodÃ¢â¬â¢s level of holiness, and as such, we would eternally remain damned. But God, gave us the law so that through our continuous failure we would see the light of the truth, which is Jesus Christ. When we willingly acknowledge this ultimate truth, we will recognize that the only way we can ever, possibly, enter the Kingdom of Heaven is by the mercy and grace of our God. It is because of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy and grace that he decided to send his Son to die in our stead, so that through his death and resurrection we might find eternal life. It is only through Jesus Christ as the slain Lamb of God, risen and interceding for mankind, that we can ever touch the heart of God. GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan began in Eden with the fall of man and every act of God was directed towards this end; that Jesus would come to earth to die as our perfect and permanent sin sacrifice. Jesus came in fulfillment of the prophetic foreshadowing presented in the Old Testament. So if we are to choose one scripture to study regarding Jesus and the law we can safely and aptly choose Matthew, chapter 5 and versus 17-48; the Sermon on the Mount. In this passage we shall examine four aspects, relating to Jesus and the law, which are; Jesus proclaims the law; JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ interpretation of the law; JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ fulfillment of the law; and Jesus and the law today. Jesus Proclaims the Law To understand the scripture found in Matthew we must recognize that in this time and in this place Jesus was speaking to the people during the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus was teaching the law of the old covenant because he had not died yet, and so the new covenant was not yet in practice. Ã¢â¬Å"The statues [of the law] are grounded in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work in creation and they serve GodÃ¢â¬â¢s relational purposes of life, stability, and the well-being of individuals and communitiesÃ¢â¬ (Fretheim, 163). The primary message that Jesus was communicating can be understood in one verse, Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfectÃ¢â¬ (New Revised Standard Version, Matt 5:49). He was teaching the law of the Torah; the law of God. The law demanded perfection, and Jesus was certainly encouraging people to pursue perfection. Jesus pursued this same perfection and was not without temptation. He was flesh and blood. Jesus was a human being with all of our frailties, needs, and desires. He was as much a human as any human being on earth. He suffered persecution and trouble as is evident in his words Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed are you when people revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falselyÃ¢â¬ (Matt 5:11). Jesus knew how it felt to be persecuted. He was not without compassion for mankind. Yet, He knew that perfection could only be found in practicing obedience to the law, which is why He went willingly to the cross. Brueggemann writes Ã¢â¬Å"The Torah is not God, for in our obedience and disobedience this is a God; so near. But God is not God without Torah, and if we would know God, it comes by way of obedienceÃ¢â¬ (115). Jesus came in fulfillment of the law, and He was obedient to the law of His Father. He became our example of righteous, selfless, obedient love for God. Jesus was the fulfillment of the law, lived in obedience to the law and taught obedience to the law. He knew that in order for us to touch the heart of God, or even diligently stretch out our imperfect fingertips toward God, we must be obedient to the Law. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ Interpretation of the Law Jesus spent a great deal of His time interpreting the law for us. During the Sermon on the Mount Jesus proclaimed that people should put on GodÃ¢â¬â¢s holiness. He taught the people of the very character of God. Jesus taught the law as the covenant between God and man and as the way to God. Jesus does not interpret the law as the Pharisees did which sought to enslave the people within a heavy yoke, which they were always unable to bear. The people thought to live under the law were simply struck down by the taskmasterÃ¢â¬â¢s lash. But here in Matthew, Jesus taught of love, and of forgiveness, which transcends the law. The Pharisees proclaimed traditions which laid outside the law and which were a lower standard of righteousness than that set forth by GodÃ¢â¬â¢s pure Law. During the Sermon on the Mount Jesus gave examples of how tradition had been used to set aside the real intent of the Law. For example he said; You have heard that it was said, Ã¢â¬ËYou shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.Ã¢â¬â¢ But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous (Matt 5:43-45). If the people are obedient to laws which were not given by God then disobedience results, which leads to separation from God. Jesus interpreted the law so that the people would be made righteous through obedience to the law. Even Jesus said Ã¢â¬Å"For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heavenÃ¢â¬ (Matt 5:20). Moreover, He interpreted the law in a new light which offers mankind a view into the holy heart of God. Isaiah predicted that Jesus would teach the lawÃ¢â¬Å"for the sake of his righteousness, to magnify his teaching and make it gloriousÃ¢â¬ (Isa. 42:21). And this Jesus did for the sake of the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s righteousness. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ Fulfillment of the Law Jesus came in fulfillment of the law. Jesus said Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. (Matt 5:17-18). He is the light at the end of the old covenant which shines brightly toward the future for those that would see. There were two avenues available to mankind under the law. The first avenue was total obedience and the second was death. If the way of obedience was not chosen then the only way to go was towards death. But theses avenues were dimly lit and the people strained to see which one was the right path to take. Our sinful nature prevents us from living in total obedience to the law as given from Moses, therefore there was only one outcome or one avenue for mankind which is death. But Jesus came in fulfillment of the law. Jesus walked on both avenues of the Law. He took the first avenue by living a life in absolute obedience to the Law. He was God manifested in the flesh. God became as a man and lived perfectly, because there was no sin within Him. On the first avenue, Jesus fulfilled the law, by living in obedience to its demands. Jesus also took the second avenue available to a man of flesh by dying for our sins. The law demanded death for anyone who did not live in obedience to it, and He died on behalf of everyone whose obedience waned. Therefore Jesus was the fulfillment of the law and through Him we can find life and not death if we chose to walk with him along the avenues of life. Ã¢â¬Å"Fretheim writes The Primal sin may thus best be defined as mistrust of God and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word, which then manifests itself in disobedience and other behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (78). If we trust in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s words then we will choose to be obedient to His words and his laws of holiness. If we chose disobedience then we choose death. But it is JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ fulfillment of the law that gives us this gift of choice. It is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sacrifice of His only Son, who was made to suffer as flesh, blood and bone on this earth at the hands of the very beings He was sent to die for. It was JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ fulfillment of the law that allows us to entertain the possibility of seeing God. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Law Today Men argue today about the question of following the old covenant or following the new covenant. But the two covenants are meant to be intermingled in the hearts of men. The old covenant attends the new and the new covenant fulfills the old. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience to the laws of the covenant imparts authority and thus is due our obedience. There are some that say Jesus ended the law, which is partly true since He is he fulfillment of the law and the term Ã¢â¬Å"fulfillmentÃ¢â¬â¢ imparts a conclusion, or an ending to something. However, that is not to say that the law is no more. Indeed GodÃ¢â¬â¢s law is unchanged. It was the traditions of man that sought to imprison mankind in their sinful flesh, which then brought eternal dependence on other men (e.g. Pharisees or Priests) to bring them back into the grace of God. Jesus offered us a new way into the grace of God and that way is found at Calvary. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ obedience to the law became a paradigm for the modern church. Suzanne Johnson writes that becoming a Christian includes Ã¢â¬Å"instruction in the sacred writings, the reshaping of ethical vision, and formation of ethical responsibilitiesÃ¢â¬ (19-20). Where does the Christian find a standard for this ethical vision or responsibilities? We are supposed to read the sacred writings which provide us with a standard and the example of a holy God, made flesh in the form of Jesus Christ. For many centuries the church followed the strict practices of manÃ¢â¬â¢s doctrine which they interpreted from the scriptures as the desire of God. Not so oddly, most of these adherences were geared towards practices that men detected in women. For example, for many years women were not allowed to speak in the church service. This practice was gleaned from PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s writings when he was addressing some problems in the church of Corinth. There were some traditions or practices that were set up for men also, like abstaining from the use of tobacco, foul language (which was determined by the society of that era), and the wearing of revealing clothing (e.g. short sleeve shirts). None of these traditions were practiced by Jesus or authorized according to His word. Even John said Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through himÃ¢â¬ (3:17). The church changes over time. It moves and sways with the society in which it exists, especially in regard to their boundaries, beliefs, and practices. What was once taboo, or forbidden, is now acceptable. The Church of God has twenty-nine practical and doctrinal commitments, but seven of these beliefs have to do with everyday living aspects given from interpretation of modern man (sgacog.org). The practical commitments have changed a great deal since the church was formed over 127 years ago. Men are trying way too hard to make it down that avenue of obedience. Jesus came to make it easier and yet, in our infinite wisdom and striving for excellence on our own merit, we have made it way more complicated that it actually is. Conclusion Jesus did not give any authority to the laws of man, but came to fulfill the laws of God alone. Jesus offers us examples of the law in his life and in His death. If we are to follow in His footsteps down the pathway of earthly life to eternal life, then we have to put down those beliefs and practices which serve only to separate men from each other and from God. It is in the practice of love and forgiveness that we shall find the heart of God. From the very beginning God had a plan to bring mankind back into an intimate relationship with him. He has given us the law so that we might find His Spirit dwelling in us through the blessing of obedience. Through GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Spirit we find peace and light. Because God loves us so much He provided that the avenue we must follow is easy and joyful. To be obedient to God is to be blessed and joyful throughout oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This law, which applies to all humankind for all time, is founded upon GodÃ¢â¬â¢s holiness. God does not change and his holiness does not change, therefore the law does not change. It is the same loving guidance for every generation that was, that is, and that is to come. Fretheim declares, Ã¢â¬Å"The reason for the giving of the law is stated clearly: it is a gracious divine gift Ã¢â¬Ëso that you may live, and that it may go well with you, and that you may live long in the landÃ¢â¬â¢ (5:33)Ã¢â¬ (156). Why do we fight against the law of God? Is it because we have romanticized death through media messages which falsely present a passionate view of de ath, or is it because we cannot see that peace, life, and GodÃ¢â¬âHimself- is found within the obedient existence. JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ life would be a lie if it were not for the law. The law prophesized of his coming and of his sacrificial role. He came to live and die in the promises of God. There was no other reason for Jesus to come to this earth and die a terrible death, other than to fulfill the law. God said it, and since His word does not change, nor return void, it had to be so. If we look at no other scripture than Matthew 5:17-48 we can clearly define the role of the law and JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ participation in the law. For in this scripture we see Jesus proclaim the law, Jesus interpret the law for all of mankind, Jesus fulfilled the law; and Jesus make the law applicable today, and forever and always. Works Cited Bruegemann, Walter. The Creative Word: Canon as a Model for Biblical Education. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982. Print. Fretheim, Terence E. The Pentateuch. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996. Print. Johnson, Susanne. Christian Spiritual Formation in the Church and Classroom. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1989. Print. New Revised Standard Version. Ed. Michael Coogan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print. South Georgia Church of God. Ã¢â¬Å"South Georgia Church of God.Ã¢â¬ 2010. Who We Are. Web. 17 October 2013.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
One of the new technology police officers are taking advantage of are the Stun Guns. Stun gun, hand-held electronic device that produces a high-voltage pulse that can immobilize a person for several minutes with no permanent damage in most cases. It is powered by ordinary batteries, which supply power to a circuit containing transformers, oscillators, capacitors, and electrodes. A Taser works by creating an electrical circuit, a closed path through which electricity travels. A battery in the gun supplies the electricity. When the gun is not in use, the electricity canÃ¢â¬â¢t flow through it and complete the circuit, because the two darts are not in contact with each other. But when the darts hit a person, they can stick to skin or clothing. The personÃ¢â¬â¢s body then closes the circuit, and electricity flows through it, delivering a powerful shock. A series of shocks can be delivered to the same person, once the darts have implanted them-selves. The strength of an electric curre nt is measured in two ways. One measure, called amperage, is the amount of electricity that flows in the circuit. Amperage is like the amount of water that flows through a hose. The second measure, called voltage, is the amount of force behind the electricity. Voltage is like the pressure of water in a hose. Stun guns are designed to be non-lethalÃ¢â¬âto have a high voltage but a low amperage. In other words, the guns put a lot of pressure behind low-intensity electricityÃ¢â¬âlike a hose that shoots a thin stream of water. The high voltage allows the current from the darts to jump through even thick clothing, but the low amperage limits the amount of electricity flooding through the body (Jozefowicz, 2006). Supporters say that electroshock guns are a safer alternative to devices such as firearms. TASER International uses the term Ã¢â¬Å"non-lethalÃ¢â¬ as defined by the United States Department of Defense Ã¢â¬â which does not mean the weapon cannot cause death, but that it is not intended to be fatal. Non-lethal weapons are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"weapons that are explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or material, wh ile minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment.Ã¢â¬ Supporters say that electroshock weapons and tasers are more effective than other means including pepper-spray (an eye/breathing irritant), batons or other conventional ways of inflicting pain, even hand guns, at bringing a subject down to the ground with a minimum physical exertion (Agnes, 2004, p. 1423). I am for police stun guns and I believeÃ stun guns are great because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re used instead of deadly force, but unfortunately most of the time, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re used instead of yelling, handcuffing, and repeating instructions. It should be required that the stun gun spray ink on the hands of the person who discharges it, then at least the people would have some incentive to use restraint with them. Or maybe even put a counter on it, so the cop has to write a report of why he discharged it. Stun guns do not kill (except in very odd cases) help protect both the police and the person they are up against from being too hurt. Critics, however, charge that police officers who are r isk-averse resort to tasers in situations where previously they would have used more conventional, less Ã¢â¬Å"extremeÃ¢â¬ techniques, such as trying to reason with a cornered suspect. Another new technology that not only police officers are taking advantage, but also the public is the patrol car video surveillance. One of the biggest limitations of police officers and other agents of the law is the inability to properly assess a large or dangerous situation in times of need. Errors in judgment about riots, car chases or other instances of civil disobedience could wreak havoc and cause danger to innocent bystanders, participants, or the officers themselves. Video surveillance cameras and other methods of communication between officers provide a valuable solution to a pressing problem. Surveillance methods used by officers and police departments may vary, and can be anything from a video surveillance camera mounted on the dashboard of a patrol car or the skids of a helicopter, to an unmanned aerial drone or a red light camera at an intersection. Each of these surveillance cameras brings a different benefit to police officers and has been valuable in times of need. As freeways and interstate travel became more popular, more and more police officers and state troopers were needed on highways and interstates to control speeding, drunk driving, and other unsafe driving practices like tailgating. As behaviors like road rage became more widespread, unwarranted attacks on officers increased. Dash-mounted video surveillance cameras recorded these attacks and provided evidence in the prosecution of the attackers (Agnes, 2004, p. 1517). A patrol carÃ¢â¬â¢s video camera can prove to be a powerful training tool that allows the police to carefully review actual patrol stops, and subsequently help theirÃ officers to identify potential safety or procedural problems that may require modification or improvement. They also help in preparing evidence for court. In regard to stun guns, I believe that many police agencies consider a stun gun as a welcomed alternative to the deadly force of a conventional gun. References Agnes, Michael (2004). WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s New World College Dictionary (4th ed.). Cleveland, Ohio:Wiley. Jozefowicz, C. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Undue force? Taser stun guns are designed to be nonlethal, but criticssay the guns have killed some people.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved December 9, 2007, from CurrentScience, a Weekly Reader publication 91.12 (March 3, 2006): 10(5). GeneralOneFile. Gale. University of Phoenix Advantages of Technology Essay Over the past few years, technology has been changing and expanding in every way possible. Even though it might seem like todays technology has reached its limits, that is far from the truth. It was only about twenty years ago that Ã¢â¬Å"personal computersÃ¢â¬ became small enough and affordable enough to buy and use. Ever since, technology has been changing peoples lives for the better. One way that technology has changed our lives for the better is by making business results faster and more accurate. Ã¢â¬Å"Think back to how business was done a few decades ago. There was no email,Internet, mobile marketing, telecommuting or smartphones. Now communications are instantaneous, huge amounts of information move through email and the Internet and powerful tools are in the hands of owners and employees. Innovations in technology have improved operations at companies of all sizes and helped turn small local businesses into global businessesÃ¢â¬ says the Houston Chronicle. This shows that the use of technology has had a huge impact on how businesses run, causing a huge increase in economy growth. One other example of an advantage in technology is it has boosted entertainment through games and computer programs. Ã¢â¬Å"Videogame systems such as NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s Wii and MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s X-Box have created a boom in at-home gaming. With the growing popularity of smartphone applications, games can now be played almost anywhere.The upside for consumers? They get easy, convenient access to an enormous variety of entertainment, all available whenever they want it. Movie lovers can rent a movie for $1 from their local Redbox during a trip to the grocery store or stream a movie directly through their TV using Netflix or Apple TV. Music fans can listen to their favorite bandÃ¢â¬â¢s album online while trading digital files of songs with friendsÃ¢â¬ says contributor Elizabeth Blackwell. This shows that technology really has boosted entertainment for people, for the better. We have games, movies, and music right at our fingertips with the touch of a button. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure everyone is not near as bored as they were decades ago! In conclusion, technology truly has changed our lives for the better with all of its amazing advanages. From computers, to phones, to brilliant machines, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got it all! Maybe one day robots will walk with us on earth. If the rapid growth of technology continues, who knows? Anything is possible.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Deerfield Massacre Response - Assignment Example These are appropriately done to produce the right cue. The lighting technique was appropriate and realistic because, a part from suiting each of the scenes, it managed to manipulate the moods of the audience based on what the actors were doing. In terms of acting, the film featured quite entertaining and comical actors. They were so believable because they were featuring the real traits of the characters. What makes them fulfill their roles is the manner in which they handle themselves. For example, I was so pleased by the manner the actor kept on talking alone and dancing himself to the tunes of his music (Kenneth 39). Besides, the organization of the film enabled the actors to be audible and loud enough to be heard by any audience. I was particularly impressed by the protagonist who thrilled e by comically using gestures, movements and cordially relating with other characters throughout the film. The other important element included in this film is consumes. Each of the actors chose the right and most appropriate costume. Each of these matched their roles, behaviors, characters and personal traits displayed throughout the action. It makes them be as admirable as they comically interact with one another. For example, the protagonist is really entertaining because he behaves weirdly especially when enjoying his music in a lonely room (Kenneth). Thus, I agree that the Drowsy Chaperone is an entertaining film. Its cinematography techniques are
Friday, September 27, 2019
Evaluative argument - Assignment Example Hence, the two sides agree on one thing that video games should be played sparingly to enable an individual balance with work or assigned duties because of its addictive nature. This paper will focus on the effects of video games. Most video games have negative implications for children or adults because they shape the way individuals thinks and modifies their behaviors. For instance, some video games such as Ã¢â¬Å"Mortal CombatÃ¢â¬ contain violence, which affects the behavior of the player (Mullan 5). This makes the player develop aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions towards the third party (Mullan 5). Similarly, it makes the players develop decreased pro-social of helping making it have a harmful effect. The violent nature of video games is because of its interactive nature since the players are rewarded for being violent (Mullan 7). In addition, the players become in control of the violence experience through killing, stabbing, shooting, among others depending on the programming of the game (Greitemeyer 500). Hence, the active participation makes the players learn the violent behaviors, which they might exercise after the end of the game (Mullan 7). Secondly, video games make the players become socially isolated since they spend most of their time playing games than interacting with other peers (Kim, Byungjoon and Robert 22). Those who become addicted to video games spend little or no time to do their homework, read, sports and interact with family members, hence contributing to their isolation. In many cases, a child who is used to interacting with the game finds pleasure in games than bonding with family members. This makes others lock themselves as they play the game. In other instances, gamers stay away from others whom they feel interferes with their gaming ability. For this reason, many children will abscond their duties assigned to create
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Marketing Strategies For Growth Overseas At Tesco - Essay Example Having described the premise of marketing strategies, this report will focus on Tesco, a multinational foods retailer operating in China, the United States, India, Thailand, Malaysia and South Korea. In some regions of the world, consumers are collectivist and value tradition whilst in other operating areas, consumers are more individualistic and brand-conscious. Price elasticity is a concern depending on the socio-economic conditions in each area of operations, thus requiring customized marketing strategies for each region. The results of a recent survey identified that 67 percent of customers considered Tesco their favourite supermarket due to its value and quality focus in the marketing mix and related to how the business positions itself among international competitors (Ma, Ding and Hong 2010). Tesco operates in an oligopoly market structure where competitive activities related to marketing continue to change the focus of business activity. The foods retailing environment maintai ns considerable competitive rivalry in pricing and promotion, as well as distribution methodology in order to serve diverse customers. Because of this, Tesco must focus on the marketing mix in order to differentiate from competitors that carry rather homogenous goods for the international consumer. Tesco utilizes marketing strategies related to green environmentalism, value promotions, brand extensions, diversifying product line offerings, and e-commerce as methods to improve its competitive position and ensure higher sales volumes internationally. 2. Theoretical framework International marketing strategies are plans of action that recognize costs, efficiency, and brand value/equity associated with specific strategic objectives related to how the business wants to... This paper stresses that since the environment where Tesco operates internationally is saturated with grocer competition, the business has developed effective strategies to try to avoid price promotions common with other supermarkets. Its value agenda provides the business with considerable brand loyalty and also brand equity that can be extended to supplementary service provision. It is uniquely positioned through its e-commerce model as a value leader and through its flexibility in procurement to fit local tastes even though these costs are higher for adjusting the supply chain methodology in the home country. However, the revenue gains achieved by Tesco, which is the number one supermarket according to comparative sales, offset these costs associated with the marketing mix adjustments. Tesco may not be able to maintain its unique value-orientation against competition with the new entrants like Aldi that carry discounted goods that consumers perceive as top quality. Partnerships wi th local producers to create private label Tesco products still fulfils its corporate social responsibility objectives in its marketing strategy for relationship and value-building, but can enhance its product selection for private label introduction or extension. When it is not only pricing, but also value associated in consumer markets with private label brands, it has long-term risk potential for TescoÃ¢â¬â¢s unique differentiation and positioning related to value provision. This report makes a conclusion that corporate social responsibility, too, stays away from pricing promotion and price emphasis in order to remain true to its value-conscious agenda and positioning efforts. According to results of a large sample group questionnaire, 71 percent of those targeted believed that Tesco has reasonable prices.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework - Essay Example uct a counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework that will create the most Ã¢â¬Å"robustÃ¢â¬ intelligence system and strategically efficient counterterrorism operations, the Federal Bureau of Investigations, Central Intelligence Agency, and the Defense Intelligence Agency must co-work to help combat terrorism. As much as this may not seem an easy task, it may be accomplished by setting new policies to govern the single body of different agencies, which will in turn govern the integrated agencies. Discussed below, are the anti-terrorism agencies, how they work and their functions. The FBI or the Federal Bureau of Investigation is a major branch on the United States department of justice. It is and intelligence-driven and a threat-focused national security organization that comprises of Federal Criminal Investigations and internal intelligence agency or counterintelligence responsibilities. Their mission is to protect and defend the United States of American against the terrorist attack and foreign intelligence threats. Additionally, they ensure that the criminal laws of the United States are implemented. Moreover, it gives leadership and criminal justice to society. The second agency is the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which is an independent US Government agency that provides national security intelligence to senior US policymakers. Its sole mission is to eliminate threats and enhance national security objectives by safeguarding the secrets that help keep the U.S. nation safe. With an agency that works solely for the president, it analyzes information from all sources as directed by the president. The agency is portioned into five major departments of divisions. Finally, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is a counterterrorism agency that gives intelligence to military warfighters, defense policymakers, and force planners in the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community. In addition, it offers support to U.S. in military planning and operations
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Peace and Justice - Essay Example However, the escaped Jews had to face even tougher situations in the burgeoning Europe. There were mass killings and tortures. Thus, by the 1880s, Jews from Russia and rest of Eastern Europe returned to Palestine and started settling there. Soon, the Jews started movements to establish a nation state for the Jewish people in Palestine. Jews claimed that the land was their historical homeland and Arabs were against it. It took very little time for violence to emerge. As Tessler points out, though Jews were allowed an independent nation thereafter, Arabs still opposed the Jewish nation, thus, Israel remains in constant conflict with Palestine and other Arab nations (67). A lot has been done to solve the conflict; though the steps were hardly successful. The first effective step came from the United Nations through the recommendation that Palestine should be split into three parts; the one with Jewish nation, the second with Arab state, and an International zone that would comprise equa l numbers of Jews and Arabs. However, the problem with the plan was that the proposed Jewish land would contain a large number of Arabs, and the proposed Arab state would contain a small number of Jews. Moreover, Jerusalem and Bethlehem were to come under the control of the United Nations. Both of the sides were against the proposed division because Jews disliked the idea of losing Bethlehem and Arabs were against the idea of an independent Jewish nation-state. Moreover, Arabs were worried about the large numbers of Arabs who would get trapped in the proposed Israel state. Soon, the Partition Plan was put on vote in the UN General Assembly on November 29, 1947. While 33 nations supported the division, 13 nations were against the plan. Another 10 nations preferred not to vote. However, Palestine and other Arab nations in the near vicinity were strongly against the plan. So, they approached the International Court of Justice with the claim that the United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to p roceed with partition was against the wishes of the majority of the inhabitants of the troubled area. However, International Court of Justice made a decision against the appeal. Soon, violence erupted and grew uncontrollable; and no other nation resorted to intervene. Regardless all this violence, on May 14, 1948, the independent State of Israel was declared. Since then, violence goes on disturbing the peace of the land. However, this does not mean that efforts were not made to ensure peace in the area. Another set of serious talks began in the beginning of 1990s when Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) started negotiations in Oslo, Norway. As a result of the talks, Palestine officially recognized the existence of Israel. Also, it was decided that the Palestinian Authority (PA) would be the official governing institution for Palestinian communities. Also, Israel allowed PA to administer various regions of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In addition, Palestine was helped in developing its own social structure with a police force, legislature, and other governmental institutions. In return, Palestine Authority was supposed to develop tolerance for Israel within the Arab community. However, the mere fact is that there is terrorism that grows in Palestine, and a consequent rise in intolerance towards Palestine in Israeli population. As a result, attacks and deaths have become a common factor even now. According to
Monday, September 23, 2019
Econ ON OLIGOPOLY & SOME GAME THEORY IDEAS WITH OLIGOPOLY - Assignment Example In the contestable market the evaluation of dealings among current firms and prospective entrants is investigated more critically. The market incumbents maintain an oligopoly through the determination of price levels in the market in their favor. Again the oligopoly is maintained by the government favor and creates a barrier for other firms from venturing in the market. 2) Suppose there are two firms operating in an oligopoly (termed a Ã¢â¬Å"duopolyÃ¢â¬ ), where the firm 1 cost function is given by C1 = 18Q1, for C1 = total cost, and Q1 = firm 1 output. The cost function for firm 2 is given by C2 = 21Q2, and C2 = total cost of firm 2, and Q2 = output of firm 2. The inverse demand for the product, Q, being sold by the oligopolist firms is given by P = 127 Ã¢â¬â 3Q, where Q = Q1+ Q2, and Q1 and Q2 are the same product (vats of toxic solution for breaking down chemical components to be used in downstream plastic manufacture). Taking into the consideration the Cournot model in regard to the duopoly that is two firms where both firms concurrently decide a quantity to produce. Designating the quantity q1 as the amount produced by firm 1 and q2 as the corresponding amount produced by firm 2. Therefore the total quantity The firm production choices are strategic substitutes. That is, an increase in the amount produced by firm1 (holding fixed the underlying amount produced by the corresponding firm 2) will considerably lower the market price and thus resulting in lesser profits for firm 2. Thus, every firm ought to take into consideration the prevailing the production decisions of the other supplementary firm in the process of undertaking its individual production decision Firm 1 possess a marginal cost of production equivalent to c1 accompanied by firm 2 which possess a marginal cost of production equivalent to c2. The corresponding Nash equilibrium is computed through the employment tow
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Fashion marketing Prada and Zara - Essay Example The paper "Fashion marketing Prada and Zara" analyzes the fashion brand of Prada and Zara and its marketing. Zara is a brand of fashion under the Inditex Group. Amancio Ortega created the brand in 1975 from when it has used clear strategies to beat the tight competition and gain world recognition. The company thrives on innovation, mostly coming up with new concepts that pioneer the industry trends. The company uses lucrative strategies, choosing not to advertise its products and channel the funds to other projects. Since its inception, the company has experienced tremendous growth and has a tremendous market share in the fashion industry. Most market researchers call the brand a devastating competitor and the coverage of this product is wide, serving markets all over the world. Zara and Prada have major differences in operation and organizations, which individually lead to their success. Zara is an independent retailer, preferring to open stores in most of the cities where they thin k they can get the most customers. The company does not use any advertisements for the products or stores, unlike Prada, mostly preferring to utilize the resources to open more stores and develop the business to meet the ever-changing demands in the fashion industry. However, the company may also prefer to use franchising techniques as the route of expansion when the legal requirements forbid the company to open independently owned stores. The franchised stores operate just like the other company owned stores.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
High School Student And Adulthood Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The power which resides in him is new in nature, and none but he knows what that is which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried.Ã¢â¬ Understanding Defines Change Psychologists Scott Scheer, Stephen Gavazzi, and David Blumenkrantz undertook a comprehensive review and analysis of the psychoanalytic literature that discussed the rites of passage in adolescence; from the reading, they derived two truths concerning an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s rite of passages. Primarily, as Scheer, Gavazzi, and Blumenkrantz state, Ã¢â¬Å"Not all transitional events necessarily indicate the occurrence of life transitionsÃ¢â¬ (1); however, Ã¢â¬Å"It is believed that both cognitive interpretation and integration are required before the event genuinely becomes a significant transition or rite of passageÃ¢â¬ (1). Essentially, to label a singular event as one that ignited a life transition, one must understand the resulting effects of the event. Additionally, according to Scheer, Gavazzi, and Blumenkrantz, the event that marks the end of the transitional period between adolescence and adulthood defines the rite. Principally, a singular event cannot accelerate oneÃ¢â¬â¢s progression into adulthood without one realizing the effects or changes that the event caused. In Ã¢â¬Å"Self-RelianceÃ¢â¬ by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emerson described the idealistic depiction of the Romantic heroÃ¢â¬â¢s rite of passage. Emerson states that Ã¢â¬Å"The power which resides in him is new in natureÃ¢â¬ (1), and he believes that a person should seek the meaning of that power for himself. EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s statement that one doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know the power that they have until one finds it (1) falls directly in line with Scheer, Gavazzi, and BlumenkrantzÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s rite of passage. Scheer, Gavazzi, and Blumenkrantz postulate that one cannot arrive at adulthood without first understanding a transitional event. Similarly, Emerson reveals, in the quote at the top of the page, that one does not know his unique power until he has tried to find it himself. Likewise, if one didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find their unique power, based on the definition given by Emerson, one hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t successfully arrived at that Ã¢â¬Å"Time in a manÃ¢â¬â¢s educationÃ¢â¬ (1), and, thus, has not successfully completed a rite of passage. Therefore, Emerson views rites of passage as events that are intrinsically bound to understanding, and without cognitive interpretation, an event cannot allow one to find oneÃ¢â¬â¢s unique power, disqualifying it as a rite of passage. The idea that rites of passages are dependent upon cognitive understanding holds true throughout a number of literary texts. For instance, in Walden by Henry David Thoreau, Thoreau details the rite of passage of a kingÃ¢â¬â¢s son. As Thoreau states, Ã¢â¬Å"One of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ministers having discovered him, revealed to him that he was, and the misconception of his character was removed, and he knew himself to be a princeÃ¢â¬ (72). Like Scheer, Gavazzi, and BlumenkrantzÃ¢â¬â¢s postulated, the sonÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery alone did not result in the personality transition from that of a foresterÃ¢â¬â¢s child to a prince. Instead, the son had to realize that he was, in fact, a prince before the transition could completely take effect. Thus, for one to totally embark and complete a rite of passage or a life transition, one must understand the effects of a singular event. (487) Works Cited Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Ã¢â¬Å"Self Reliance.Ã¢â¬ Adventures in American Literature: Pegasus Edition. Ed. Bernard Brodsky. Orlando: Harcourt, 2004. 221. Print. Scheer, Scott, et al. Rites of passage during adolescence. Forum. n. page. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. http://ncsu.edu/ffci/publications/2007/v12-n2-2007-summer-fall/scheer.php. Thoreau, Henry David. Walden. New York: Penguin Classics Publishing, 2005
Friday, September 20, 2019
Apple Inc Culture Has Both Advantages And Disadvantages Business Essay Introduction Apple Inc, a multinational company delivers high standard computer products, communication products, and entertainment product such as Mac Computers, Iphones, Ipads and Ipods. The American company was developed and formed in Cupertino, California in the year 1976. The company was incorporated in 1977 as Apple Computer, Inc. The company started as computer manufacturer, and over the years the company grew rapidly was soon more than a computer manufacturer. The high standard operating system Mac OS made them unique among the competitors from the same industry. At the moment Apple, Inc is one among the top rated in the fortune companies and is well established as a PC, Mobile phone, and software developers and distributors worldwide. The company was formed in the year of 1976 the incorporation took place in the year of 1977; also the first computer was introduced in the year of 1977. The founders of Apple Inc (founded as Apple Computer Inc) are Steven Paul Jobs, Stephen Gary Wozniak, and Ronald Gerald Wayne. But Wayne has left Apple before the incorporation, the real twist in its growth and development was with the entry of Mike Markkula who was the former marketing manager at Intel Corporation. Markkula offered a financial support for Apple Computer Inc. He had invested $ 250, 000 and some expertise for expanding Apples business. At first, they manufactured a computer without key boards and monitors, the computers even sold without a case. The first computer is named as Apple I. Following Apple I the company had launched Apple II which covers all the drawbacks of Apple I. Apple II had added advantages over its predecessor, including a colour display and a cassette storage drive. The introduction of Apple II was a great success and it enhanced $ 1 million annual sales. By the year 1979 Apple launched Apple II+ computers which came out with better memory and features that Apple II. During the 1980s Apple introduced their Apple III computers. The launch was a big failure. The analysts stated that the PC had launched without sufficient tests, as a result many of the units turned out to be defective. Following that Apple continued to remain innovative in product development. One of their greatest innovations was their Ipods which is able to store and play music files with the help of their own Itune software. The unique design and ultra portability made the product favorite for all kinds of customers. Following that they have introduced their first mobile phone, which was there entry in to the booming mobile phones industry. The mobile phone is top rated for their unique features, and enormous designs. It was great success in the smart phones category. With all their high standard products and innovations the company had remained top rated even in the recession. According to the second quarter report Apple Inc, the 2010 second quarter revenues raised up to $ 13.5 billion, the second quarter revenue of 2009 reported as $ 9.08 billion. Also the profit margin raised from $ 39.9 % to $ 41. 7 %, Mac PCs shows 33 % unit growth and Ipones shows 131 % unit growth compared to the previous quarter. Whereas, Ipods shows 1 % decline in unit growth, the major portion of the revenue is contributed by Iphones. Organisational behaviour According to Mullins, (2005), Organizational behavior as the study and understanding of individual and group behavior, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness, (Mullins, 2005, p.26) Organizational culture is complex and multi-faceted. Culture is intangible and varies from organization to organization. Many authors came up with relevant theories regarding these subjects. It can be defined in simple terms as the way things are done in an organization. Mullins, 2005 stated that according to Handy there are 4 main ways that organizational culture can be classified, they are as follows: Power Culture Role Culture Task Culture Person Culture Power Culture Organization in this category tend to have minimal rules and regulations, also it is largely dependant on a central character. The decisions are made by this central character or a central group. The focus group of Apple Inc have proved to be best at what they are doing so far. Though this type of culture is adopted by small enterprises, Apple Inc have adopted this due to the fact that they emphasise on delivering quality over anything else. Role Culture The organization in this category, tend to have a bureaucratic way of organizational culture. It very much sticks to the rules and regulations of the company. In this culture, organizations tend to work as the strong pillars, where individual values have less importance, whereas the positions play important roles. In Apple Inc, there involved a level of secracy as individual opinions were not acepted at all points and there were flaws in communication as well. While looked upon from a human resource view, this proved to have affected the product development at various stages. Where as, when looked upon from a product development prospective, this proved to be a more challenging and more demanding quality of significant importance. In most cases the pillars are controlled by the role, also roles and job descriptions are more important than individual performance. Task Culture In this culture, organizations are more concerned about the objective and tasks. It does not pay much importance to HR rules and regulations as this culture is more tasks oriented. Expertise and individual performance are more valued than the positions and roles. The communication tends to be both ways and the employees are free to express their ideas and suggestions at Apple Inc. Also decision making is not relied on information from a single source and the employees take part in expressing their opinion or the managers gathered ideas from the co-workers. But reports at Apple Inc show that this culture can be difficult to achieve economies of scales. In todays fast moving digital world, many companies including Apple Inc adopted this style of operation. In olden days this has been seen in the aeronautic engineering, but now-a-days some of the multinational IT companies are adopting this style, because they are keen about their organisational goals and tasks. Person Culture Individuals are the key factors for this concepts, this culture is normally seen in animal protection organizations. According to Mullins, (2005) Geert Hofstede also identified four dimensions to organizational culture and work place differences. They are as follows: Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Individualism Masculinity Power Distance In this culture there is high level of disparity. According to Hofstede this culture is totally dependent on the management; in this concept subordinates should obey the superiors. Communication tends to flow from top to down. It is seen in military operations, at the moment organisations are trying to reduce power distance and putting their maximum efforts to bring equality in organizations. Apple had this within the management and this was a factor that affected the overall performance to a certain extend. Uncertainty Avoidance As Hofstede linked the national culture and organizational culture, uncertainty avoidance refers to the unexpected situations or unusual situations that a society or the employees of an organization feels that they are going to face. Apple Inc had this problem as there was a level of secrecy maintained among the employees. They themselves were not aware of what was happening around them. Individualism Individualism refers to the individuals being capable of looking after themselves. At Apple Inc, the context of organizational behavior is applicable to some parts of the organization that the employees are self driven. They are highly committed to what they do pertaining to work and were not able to take care of themselves. Masculinity It refers to the gender difference in organizational behavior, in some society the womens value is not differed from mens but in some society it differs women has less value that the men. Automatically it affect the organizational behavior, if an organization provide the same positions for men and women, it may bring internal conflict in that particular organization. Leadership Leadership is not about the leader, it is about how he builds the confidence of everyone else. Leaders are responsible for both the big structures that sever as the cornerstone of confidence, and the human touches that shape a positive emotional climate to inspire and motivate people. Leaders delivering confidence by espousing high standards in their messages, exemplifying these standards in the conduct they model and establishing formal mechanism to provide a structure for acting on those standards. (Mullins J. L, 2007, p.362) A diagrammatic representation of leadership Subordinates-centered Leadership Boss-Centered Leadership Use Authority by Manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager makes decisions and announce it Managers permits subordinates to function within defined limits Managers presents problems, gets suggestions and make decisions Manager presents ideas and invites questions Managers presents tentative decisions to change subject Manager sells decision Managers define limits, and asks group to make decision (Mullins J. L, 2007, p.362) What is good at Apple, Inc? Innovative and task driven culture Apple Inc is totally focused on innovation, in another word they always tries make superior and unique products to gain competitive advantages. For this purpose they are very keen to choose the best work force available. Hard work and commitment is the main quality that the company seek from it employees. There is a common saying that there is always more work to do than the employees. A relaxed and informal atmosphere is created in the working campus, many researches proved that the employees at Apple Inc is relaxed and at the same time highly committed to tasks given by the company. The company is always taking keen interest to entertain their employees after the working hours. As discussed, the company is recognized as innovator therefore it always prefers workaholic people. In one way the company is adopting Handys task oriented organizational culture, in this culture Handy described that organizations are less formal and highly task oriented. It is agreed that Apple Inc is adopting an innovative and task driven culture, but at the same time they have very strong work ethics and very strict deadlines. The best example for this there working hour, an employee is working 60 to 70 hours per week. The employees believe that apple is not just for making money. The innovations helped the company gain market reputation, at the same time it helps the employee to learn more things every day. That is one of the main things that employees are seeking for, especially in software and computer related fields. The technology is changing day by day, and Apple Inc is always trying to innovate something which can surprise the world. It helps the employees even after they left the organization, the world knows that the employees coming out from Apple will be highly committed, task driven and hard working, also they can contribute expertise in to other business in which they are selected for. Individualism According to Hofstede, in this culture employees are capable or expected look after themselves. Apple Inc is allowing their employees to work themselves. The employees must run their own shows. Because of that the company is always seeking for the best talents, also the guidance are given occasionally, as a result the employees are becoming self confident and self motivated, and they clearly focused and showing high commitment to the tasks. Also they always ready to take more responsibilities. There is common belief in the employees mind that Apple Inc is always seeing for accomplishment rather than the relationship building. Individual has the opportunities to prove their ability and get the reward. The opportunity to grow is wide open in Apple Inc. As it is highly focused on the innovation and their keen interest to launch something new and inspiring allow the employees make the days creating and challenging. It is widely accepted by the employees at Apple Inc is that every day tha t they can learn and they can experience something new. Therefore the individual opportunities to grow and learn is more compared to any other multinational firms, also the employees are capable to their own tasks without any guidance. Diversity and Cross functionality Apple Inc is a multinational which is always looking for the best talents and committed work force, therefore from all the parts of world talented people are appointed. Employees are most often used to work with multinational workforce. It is also allowing the employees to learn different culture and working styles. According many studies conducted, it has been realized that employees are often find cross functional activities to perform the accomplishment of the companys objectives or organizational goals. Apple Inc. took all the necessary steps to promote diversity among its work force and also there always make sure a non homogeneous workforce. Furthermore they have set up partnerships with various of organizations. Apple Inc has a partnership with National Black MBAs, National society of Hispanics MBAs and the society of Women Engineers. These Kind of organization promote diversity and allow the employees mix with diverse work force. Apple Inc believes that the diversity in work force is one of the important tasks to execute a successful corporate culture Managers are asked to do different tasks other than their working area. Many of the multinational firms are adopted cross functional activities in order make their employees multitask oriented and to broaden up their abilities. Many mangers in Apple Inc, stated that they have often asked to cross functional activities which are out of their working area. For instance according to case study, an input manager commented that he is involved in many of the cross functional activities, one day he may asked to involve in industrial design, another day he may asked to involve in the product design and software engineering. These kind of cross functionality will make the employees to work and enhance knowledge in different fields, also they may not be stick in position they will always be creative and active. At the same time the organization will allocate a smooth operation in regards human resource management, it may not stuck if one or more employees are off or on holidays, someone can ea sily cover up the situations. Bonus and Benefits The benefits in Apple Inc are differs from locations to locations and it is also depends on the employment status. The company has taken number of steps to make the employees feel good about the benefits offered by the company. The companies benefit programs starts with the insurance coverage schemes, also they initiated Flexible spending accounts, employees stock purchase program, 401 saving and investment plan, product discounts for the staffs, on site fitness programs also they offered the opportunities to work in big projects where extra bonu is offered. As discussed the bonus and benefits somewhat depends on the performance, in the year 1995 Apple Inc has designed and implemented a program called Apple Fellow Program. The main aim of the program is to identify the best performer and from which employee the company has received extra ordinary contribution. The Fellow program winners used to be the leader and they can guide other for companys progress activities. In return the company offered the Flexi benefit program to its staffs. Also the studies and researches shows that Apple Inc had given free Iphones to its staffs after the unique mobile phone has launched in the industry. Opportunities and Job Securities Career opportunities are very wide in Apple Inc, as it recognized as an innovator the employee are having wide range of opportunities to prove their caliber and can build their career on a performance wise. Also Apple Inc conducting many internship programs which allow the employees to gain the thorough knowledge in different fields. The employees working with Apple Inc is coming out with a great confidence. According to Maslows pyramid after basic need of human it very essential that employees feel job security. In case of Apple Inc it is not only a job security, in Apple Incs words the company is not providing employment security but it is providing employability security. The people coming out from Apple Inc is highly demanded, employers are happy offer opportunities for this candidates. Employers worldwide are well aware that these candidates have a wide range experience and they can cope up with any organizational culture. They expect a strong contribution from these candidates. Unique Corporate Culture The organizational culture at Apple is highly focused on the jobs and innovation, may CEQs came and made some changes in the culture, but over the time the ultimate corporate culture is totally focused on innovation and the jobs done. They are enjoying an informal culture at the same time they have employed very strong deadlines and making the employees to have clear focus on the objectives. The founder Jobs did contributed the best of to make this Unique culture possible for this company. Many of other multinational firms are adopting this kind of organizational culture. The difference between these companies and Apple Inc is that the other companies will be more flexible and they might lose the focus and they wont be strict on the deadline like Apple Inc. On the other hand Apple Inc is maintaining the informal culture and task oriented culture but at the same time they are very much focused on the objectives and tasks and they have very strong deadline with no compromise. The corporate culture of Apple Inc, is making the employees or it is encouraging the employees to make something Insanely Great and the CEO Jobs said to be the founder of this culture. As discussed earlier many CEOs came and altered the organizational corporate culture, but at the end of the day Jobs came and restructured the culture, after he has come back he realized that the company is lacking their original culture which was at time he was the CEO. Experts opinioned and stated the result of this change is Imac. What is bad at Apples, Inc Lack of transparency of information Apple Inc is recognized as an innovator and the products they are offering to the market is unique and high standard. There is secret behavior has maintained from the beginning of the business. In a way it is acceptable that company is mainly focused on Innovations therefore a secrecy in information is necessary, but may reports shows that the secrecy somehow making trouble for smooth operation of the company. Their tight control over the information caused many troubles; even it had led an employee to commit suicide in China. Though they have not affected by the recession, considering future growth of the company transparency of information is necessary. Transparency of information helps the investors as well as the stake holders. Many of the multinational companies showing keen interest in making the information available to the public, but at Apple Inc secrecy is there part of the corporate culture. Reports show that the many of the product launches are surprising the staffs, because it is kept secret, only the product developer and the senior management are aware of the product. But thinking globally many great ideas and suggestions can come out from the internal staffs, especially from the marketing team, because they are the have the clear picture of market needs and wants. Even the managers used to make wrong information product even during the meetings. Dysfunctional culture There are assumptions many times that Apple Incs corporate culture moved to dysfunctional. There are cases reported that many talented people they left the company because they could not adjust and adopt the unique culture of the company. According to the case study vice president is enjoying a greater power in the company. Analysts pointed out that the company has less feeling towards relationship with the employees but they strictly focused on the jobs. An incident reported that vice president hired people and assigned a pay scale twice than the senior employees working the firm. Unfair Promotions and compensations There are many cases that reports unfairness in promotion and analysts say that the employees are treated unfairly. This is mainly because of their unique corporate culture, as discussed earlier personal values have less important in Apple Inc they prefer jobs and innovations but at the same time they are creating a relaxed atmosphere for their employees. Also report says that only top executives are compensated and appreciated for jobs done. The employees claiming that even if they come out with new product, they dont get enough appreciation. Also the promotions are given depends on the interest of the managers. There are comments from employees that they are not given enough opportunities grow their career. Long Working Hours Apple Inc is always preferred hard working people in another word they prefer workaholic people who does not care about the working hours. An average working hours per week in Apple Inc is 60 to 70, which is more than the normal companies working hours. As we can see this will affect employees family life. The job is also bit stressed and the employees must be creative and enthusiastic all the time. For instance if an employee is working in the product development department for 60 to 70 hours per week continuously they might get over stressed, the particular department needs full concentration all the time he or she is working. There case that former employee sued Apple Inc for violating the labor law California, he complained that he used to work 7 days every six weeks. The company is also aware of that, there are cases after working these kinds of long hours the employees were in therapy. Highly Depending on Leadership Apple Inc is highly depending on the leadership, The CEO Jobs has very much influence on the corporate structure of Apple Inc. Analysts sees that without Job Apple will nothing other than a normal software company. Also analysts stated that the company will be struggling without Jobs. Looking into the theoretical side one can see that Job the CEO of playing both democratic and autocratic styles of leadership. In a way he is making an informal atmosphere and creative opportunities for his employees at the same time the company is very strict on the tasks and deadlines like a military camp. The information are very secret and the will not tolerate any leakage of the company information. The always kept a secret behavior. Conclusion Many of the issues have been discussed, it has been realized that Apple Inc as multinational company has a unique at the same very challenging corporate culture. Many supporters have wrote and many companies are trying to adopt this culture, also many studies shows some of the major draw backs of Apple Incs corporate culture. The study realized that the culture has both advantages and disadvantages, the capacity of innovating unique and high standard products the company attract more talented people in to their business, the younger generation will love to work with as they can learn something every day also they can expose themselves. On the other hand there are some major draw backs, they have no transparency of information also they have long working hours compared to another companies. With some changes the corporate culture of Apple Inc can be the best in the world. Recommendations There are major issues that the company can change, they are as follows: The information can be more transparent, the investor and stake holder are always seeking transparent information. Also it can help to improve product quality and can get tremendous ideas and suggestions from the co workers. Transparency of information will help the company to know better the needs and wants of the market. The long working hours can be changed, maximum of 40 hours working hours will help the employee to relax, a relaxed mind can produce greater idea than a stressed and week mind. Having multiple senior executives will allow the company to continue their activities, eve if one senior executive left the organisation. All the employee should be treated same, equality is another great fact for the success of an organization, more talented people will be attracted to organisation. Job appreciation will encourage the employees to work more committed and task oriented.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Bull Durham: To the True Meaning of The First Fight Scene The theme of this paper is to dissect the first fight scene; in the movie Bull Durham, between Crash Davis; who is played by Kevin Costner; and "Nuke" LaLoosh; who is played by Tim Robbins. The fight takes place in a bar scene between these two men who have never met before. The reason for the fight is that Crash Davis is talking to a women by the name of Annie Savoy who is sitting at one of the tables. Nuke already believes that Annie is going to be with him all season long, but Crash believes otherwise. In the beginning of the scene Nuke is dancing with all of the women in the bar while Crash is sitting alone in the corner of the bar. Crash then orders a drink for Annie, and is then asked by Annie to come over and sit by her. Crash introduces himself to Annie and tells her that he is the new catcher on the Durham Bulls baseball team. At the same time Nuke comes over and ask Annie to dance, but Crash stands up and says that she is dancing with him. When Crash stands up in front of him, Nuke takes this as a challenge and he asks Crash if he wants to take it outside. At this point Nuke still does not know that Crash is his new catcher. While Nuke is waiting for Crash outside, Crash begins to wonder how he is going give Nuke his first lesson to make it to the majors. When Crash finally comes outside he sees that Nuke is standing in the middle of the street. Nuke is not alone he has the entire baseball team standing behind him. First, Crash says that he does not want to fight him. When Crash says this everyone else begins to tease Crash. Next, Crash tells Nuke to throw the first punch, but Nuke refuses to. So instead, Crash tells Nuke to throw a baseball as hard as he can right at Crash's chest. When Nuke hears this everyone around him including himself begin to laugh, because they know how hard Nuke can throw and that it could kill Crash if it hit him in the chest or the head. During this entire time Crash is keeping a cool head. He knows that the chance of Nuke hitting him is very small. Also, he tells Nuke that he won't be able to do it because he is beginning to think about it. Crash goes so far as to say that Nuke's aim is so bad that he could not hit water if he fell ... ... he went about getting his point across. He could of either been beat up very badly or he could of been killed by the baseball. When Crash stands up and grabs Nuke's arm he is trying to defend his asking of Annie to dance and instantly invades Nukes space. Nuke's attitude towards this is not to back down, but to stay where he is and to fight about it. When Crash grabs Nuke's arm he is also using touch to get his message across. By grabbing the arm Crash instantly places more emphases on his words. Not only were there misunderstandings in this conversation, but if they had not happened the argument never would have taken place. The first misunderstanding was that Nuke did not know that Crash was his new teammate and catcher. Another misunderstanding was that they both did not know that Annie had already choose which man she was going to take under her arm for the season. The misunderstandings that occurred in this confrontation, tells us that one main problem is men and the way that they act towards each other. Also, if humans would try to communicate instead of fighting changes could be make.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Reaction Rates of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric Acid at Various Concentrations Introduction/ plan ------------------ I am experimenting into the reaction rates of Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid when under different concentrations. Both Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid are clear solutions but when they react together they produce a cloudy solution, the solution become so cloudy you cannot see through it. To measure the rate of reaction I am going to print off a cross from the computer onto a piece of paper, place it under the beaker with the solution in it and record the time taken for the cross not to be visible. The Symbol equation for my experiment is: Na S O (aq) + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + H O (l) + S (s) + SO (g) The Word equation for my experiment is: Sodium Thiosulphate + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water + Sulphur + Sulphur Dioxide Equipment --------- Below is a list of the equipment I will be using throughout my experiments: * Computer draw crosses * 400ml Beakers to put solution in * 20ml beakers to place hydrochloric acid, sulphuric thiosulphate and water in * Measuring Cylinders * Pipettes to measure liquids accurately * Thermometers to check temperature is constant * Stop Clocks to record rate of reaction * Paper towels to dry equipment To make all of my experiments fair I will keep some factors the same: * The volume of solution - 40cm * The volume of hydro...
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Micha I'm determined to have a party tonight, even though I'm not a fan of parties. Never really have been. I just like how they block out all the noise inside my head and what I'm hoping is that tonight's will block out the sound of my dad's voice. Ella bailed on me when we got back to our houses, muttering something about finding her father. I offered to go with her, but she declined and took Lila instead. I let her be because I sensed she needed space. I was fine with her taking some time as long as it wasn't the space of five hundred miles. Ethan and I take a break from working on the car to plan the party. After a massive amount of text messages are sent out and a couple of keggers ordered by Ethan, we're good to go. We're hanging around in the kitchen, waiting for people to start showing up when clouds start rolling in and thunder rattles at the windows. Ã¢â¬Å"Can I ask you something?Ã¢â¬ Ethan asks abruptly. I take out a frozen burrito from the freezer and drop it on a plate. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure. What's up?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't take this the wrong way.Ã¢â¬ He tips back in his chair. Ã¢â¬Å"But what is it with Ella? Why are you so fixated on her? You have like a ton of girls falling at your feet all the time and you used to totally be all into it. Then suddenly you weren't and it was all about her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wasn't ever into the girls falling at my feet. I was just bored.Ã¢â¬ I pop the plate into the microwave and press start. He grabs a handful of chips from a bag on the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, but that still doesn't answer my question.Ã¢â¬ I cross my arms, uncomfortable with the awkward heart-to-heart moment. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not sure, but why do you care?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm just curious because you've never talked about it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, but we don't talk about a lot of stuff.Ã¢â¬ He lets the chair legs reconnect to the floor. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, I'm not asking you to open up and spill your feelings out to me, so quit being weird. I just want to understand because I've known both of you practically forever.Ã¢â¬ The microwave beeps and I turn to it. Ã¢â¬Å"It was the night of the snowboarding incident. That's when I realized things were different.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When she broke her arm?Ã¢â¬ he asks. Ã¢â¬Å"And you had to take her to the hospital.Ã¢â¬ I nod. Ã¢â¬Å"You remember how she fell off the roof and then didn't get up right away and certain people were yelling that she was dead.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, I was drunk,Ã¢â¬ Ethan gripes because he was the one yelling. Ã¢â¬Å"And she looked dead to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, that's when I knew.Ã¢â¬ I take the burrito out and set it on the counter. Ã¢â¬Å"Thinking she was dead was seriously the most terrifying thing that's ever happened to me. More than the idea of my father never returning. More than my own death.Ã¢â¬ Ethan nods, trying to make sense of my babbling. Ã¢â¬Å"OkayÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I slam the microwave door shut and sit down at the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, you asked.Ã¢â¬ He taps his phone on the table. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you think of Lila?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"She seems nice.Ã¢â¬ I get up and grab a soda from the fridge and then toss one to Ethan. Ã¢â¬Å"And she seems to be into you, I guess.Ã¢â¬ He taps the top of the can, and then flips the tab. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, but she barely knows me.Ã¢â¬ Sipping my soda, I sit back down. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone barely knows you.Ã¢â¬ He shrugs, staring out the window. Ã¢â¬Å"I never really understood the point of that whole get-to-know-you thing.Ã¢â¬ The house phone rings and our conversation ends. I inhale the rest of the burrito as the answer machine beeps. Ã¢â¬Å"Um, hiÃ¢â¬ ¦ this message is for Micha.Ã¢â¬ It's my father's voice. I freeze, gripping the edge of the table. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, Terri, I understand that he's pissed at me, but I need to talk to him. It's important, okay? And he hung up on me yesterday morningÃ¢â¬ ¦ I thought maybe if you encouraged him to call me?Ã¢â¬ He sounds frazzled. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't knowÃ¢â¬ ¦ look, I'm sorry.Ã¢â¬ He hangs up. I release the table from my death grip, get up, and delete the message from the phone. When I turn around, Ethan is on his feet. The hole that I punched in the wall hasn't been fixed and I think about hammering my fist through it again. Ã¢â¬Å"We should get our shit picked up before it rains,Ã¢â¬ Ethan says, staring at the sky through the window. I pop my knuckles and walk for the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Sounds like a plan.Ã¢â¬ Ella I find my dad at the bar. It's the first place I look, but it's disappointing that it was so easy. Lila waits for me in the car, because I ask her to. When I walk in, I spot him slumped over in a barstool with an empty cup in front of him. Denny, the bartender, is wiping down the counters with a rag. When he sees me in the entryway, he holds up his hand. Ã¢â¬Å"You're going to need to show me your ID, before you come in any further.Ã¢â¬ He drapes the cleaning rag over his shoulder and walks around the counter toward me. Ã¢â¬Å"It's me, Denny,Ã¢â¬ I say. Ã¢â¬Å"Ella Daniels.Ã¢â¬ His eyes widen. Ã¢â¬Å"Holy shit. You're back.Ã¢â¬ I nod. Ã¢â¬Å"I am, but only for the summer.Ã¢â¬ He rakes his hands through his curly brown hair. Ã¢â¬Å"Where were you anyway? No one really seemed to know.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In Las Vegas, going to school.Ã¢â¬ I point at my father. Ã¢â¬Å"I should probably take him home, I'm guessing.Ã¢â¬ Denny glances back at my father. Ã¢â¬Å"He stumbled in here early this morning. I wasn't even opened up yet, but he was already too drunk to understand when I tried to explain to him that we were closed.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'll take him home,Ã¢â¬ I tell him and he lets me by. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry he's been so much trouble for you.Ã¢â¬ He drops the rag on the counter and helps me get my dad to his feet. He smells like he showered in a bottle of Jack Daniels. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't mind him being here, Ella,Ã¢â¬ Denny says. Ã¢â¬Å"But I'm starting to feel guilty about it. For the last few months, he's been showing up more and more. I think he might have a problem.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's had one for a while.Ã¢â¬ I drape my dad's arm over my shoulder and Denny does the same with his other arm. My dad mumbles an incoherent objection and then something about missing her and wanting it to all go away. We drag him outside and Lila hops out of the car. She doesn't say anything as Denny and I lie my dad down in the back of the Firebird. It's starting to sprinkle and lightning snaps across the sky. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks for helping me get him out,Ã¢â¬ I tell Denny, shielding my eyes from the raindrops. Denny rubs his neck tensely. Ã¢â¬Å"Have you ever considered getting him some help?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What do you mean? Like rehab?Ã¢â¬ I shout over the thunder. He shrugs. Ã¢â¬Å"Or AA. Something that will help him get his life together.Ã¢â¬ I scratch my head, confused. Why hadn't it occurred to me? Panic starts to claw up my throat and guilty feelings about my mother's death consume. Ã¢â¬Å"Just think about it,Ã¢â¬ Denny says, giving me a pat on the arm. Ã¢â¬Å"And if you need any help, you know where to find me.Ã¢â¬ I thank him again and jump into the car. I wait for Lila to say something, but when she opens her mouth, it's not what I was expecting. Ã¢â¬Å"My older sister was a drug addict,Ã¢â¬ she says quickly. Ã¢â¬Å"For like a year.Ã¢â¬ I stop chewing on my gum. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't know that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know. Not a lot of people do. My family is very firm on keeping our dirty laundry to ourselves.Ã¢â¬ She rotates in her chair to look at my dad snoring on the backseat. Ã¢â¬Å"But I wanted to tell you so that you know that I understand how hard it is to watch someone you care about hurt themselves.Ã¢â¬ I turn the car down my street and the tires splash puddles onto the hood as they hit the potholes. Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you never tell me before?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why didn't you tell me about your dad?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know.Ã¢â¬ Who is this girl sitting next to me? Ã¢â¬Å"So my life doesn't scare you?Ã¢â¬ She arches her eyebrows and sits forward in her seat. Ã¢â¬Å"I wouldn't go that far, but your personal life doesn't.Ã¢â¬ *** There are three large Keggers on Micha's back porch when we pull up to my house. The garage door is wide open and his car is missing. The rain is pouring down and flooding the sidewalk and the tree next to the house sways in the wind. Ã¢â¬Å"They must have got the car fixed,Ã¢â¬ I say, unbuckling my seatbelt. Ã¢â¬Å"Dang it.Ã¢â¬ Lila smacks her hand on her knee and a smile expands across her face. Ã¢â¬Å"I was so looking forward to watching Ethan bent over the hood.Ã¢â¬ I snort a laugh. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, that wasn't really my point,Ã¢â¬ I say when I stop laughing. Ã¢â¬Å"We somehow have to get him out of the car and into the house and I was going to have Micha help.Ã¢â¬ Lila and I turn toward the backseat, trying to figure out a way to get my dad out. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe we could ask your brother?Ã¢â¬ Lila suggests. My eyes roam to the Porsche parked in front of us. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not sure he'll help even if we ask him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It doesn't hurt to try.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, you're right.Ã¢â¬ I sigh and text Dean to come help. He doesn't answer, but a few minutes later the back door swings open. Dean steps out, barefoot, with a hoodie pulled over his head. He doesn't say anything when he swings the door open. Lila hops out of his way and he ducks inside the car and drags our father out. I scramble out of the car and hold the back door open for him. He lets my dad lean his weight on him and he aides him to the living room sofa. Ã¢â¬Å"Where did you find him?Ã¢â¬ Dean asks me as he turns my dad to his side in case he throws up. Ã¢â¬Å"At the bar.Ã¢â¬ I place the duvet from the back of the couch over my dad and he snuggles up to it like a child. Ã¢â¬Å"Denny helped me get him to the car.Ã¢â¬ Dean presses his lips together, and bobs his head up and down. Ã¢â¬Å"That's where I figured he was, but I didn't want to go looking for him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You know I'm not even old enough to be in a bar, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And I'm old enough to know that I don't want to deal with this crap anymore.Ã¢â¬ I open my mouth to yell at him but zip my lips and shake my head, regaining power of my temper. He backs toward the stairway. Ã¢â¬Å"I've had enough. I'm moving on with my life and you should do the same.Ã¢â¬ He leaves me in the room alone with a heavy feeling in my heart. I'd love to move on, but I'm not sure how. Running away to Vegas for eight months sure as hell didn't help because I'm almost back to where I started. *** Lila and I decide to go to Larry's Diner, the local fast food drive-in, to get some lunch. It's a seventies themed restaurant where the waitresses wear roller skates and skate up the cars to take orders. After they hook the food tray to the window, we eat in the car and listen to music. The rain is still beating down, but softer, although the roof is draining onto the front of the hood. We're chatting about the group of guys sitting on the tables underneath the canopy, when Lila focuses the conversation to somewhere I don't want to go. Ã¢â¬Å"So where did you and Micha run off to this morning?Ã¢â¬ she asks, sipping her soda and batting her eyelashes innocently. I dip a fry in the ranch cup balanced on the console. Ã¢â¬Å"Nowhere. He just chased me down the street.Ã¢â¬ She dumps some more ketchup onto her chicken sandwich. Ã¢â¬Å"Then why did both of you come back soaking wet?Ã¢â¬ My body tingles at the memory of Micha and me rolling around in the grass. Ã¢â¬Å"One of the neighbor's sprinklers turned on while we were running across it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Seems like you were awfully wet just from being in the sprinklers for a few minutes.Ã¢â¬ She dabs her lips with a napkin. Ã¢â¬Å"And you look really happy right now.Ã¢â¬ I force back a smile and pick the pickles off my burger silently. Ã¢â¬Å"If you don't want to tell me,Ã¢â¬ she says. Ã¢â¬Å"Then you don't have to.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm just not comfortable talking about Micha,Ã¢â¬ I explain. Ã¢â¬Å"When I don't even know how I feel about him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, well you could talk to me about it. That's how friends help each other figure things out.Ã¢â¬ She pauses, cleaning up some grease that dripped on her shirt. Ã¢â¬Å"Didn't you ever have a friend that you could talk to about everything?Ã¢â¬ I shrug and take a bite of my burger. Ã¢â¬Å"Micha maybe, but I can't talk to him about him.Ã¢â¬ She looks at me sadly. Ã¢â¬Å"Try talking to me then.Ã¢â¬ I chew on a fry, trying not to choke. Once it's out there, it's real. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not sure I can.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just try,Ã¢â¬ she urges. Ã¢â¬Å"What's it going to hurt?Ã¢â¬ I stir the ranch with a fry. Ã¢â¬Å"Micha kissed me on the front lawn. That's why we came back all wet. We were lying on the grass, getting soaked by the sprinklers and making out.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Did you like it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Like what?Ã¢â¬ She rolls her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"The kiss.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I like it every time he kisses me,Ã¢â¬ I say nonchalantly. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet at the same time, I don't. My feelings are conflicted.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Because you don't know what you want?Ã¢â¬ she asks. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I think I do know what I want,Ã¢â¬ I mumble, stunned by my own answer. Ã¢â¬Å"I just won't admit it.Ã¢â¬ She says, Ã¢â¬Å"I think you just did.Ã¢â¬ I continue thinking out loud. Ã¢â¬Å"I think I might have figured it out that night on the bridgeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ My mind starts to drift back to that night as I stare at the rain pattering against the windshield. She slurps her soda. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened the night on the bridge?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I kissed Micha.Ã¢â¬ I shut my eyes, drifting back to the memory, not on the bridge but somewhere else we went that night. We're in his car talking. He seems happy and so do I. She giggles. Ã¢â¬Å"I knew it. I knew he wasn't just a friend. So tell me the details, like what happened after the kiss.Ã¢â¬ My eyes open to a veil of rain on the window as the images drift away from my mind. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing. I left for college.Ã¢â¬ She balls up the sandwich wrapper and sets it in the bag. Ã¢â¬Å"You just left? God, no wonder you two visually undress each other. The sexual tension between you is probably about ready to burst.Ã¢â¬ I start to deny it, but realize she's right. I want Micha so badly it physically hurts sometimes, however if it hurts to want him this much, then how bad would it be to lose him? Ã¢â¬Å"Speaking of the devil.Ã¢â¬ She rolls down the window as Micha's Chevelle pulls up beside us. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you like stalking us or something?Ã¢â¬ Ethan leans over from the passenger side and hollers, Ã¢â¬Å"How did you ever guess?Ã¢â¬ Micha's extremely quiet, as he reads the menu on the marquee. The waitress skates over and ducks her head into the cab of the car, sticking out her butt. Rain falls on her back as she jots down their orders and then giggles at something either Micha or Ethan said. Either way, it's annoying. I pile all the garbage onto the tray, start up the car, and rev up the engine, startling the waitress and everyone else. Lila gapes at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Ella, what are you doing?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry,Ã¢â¬ I apologize, feeling kind of bad, and put a tip on the tray. The waitress gives me a tight smile as she collects the tray and skates off to the order window. Micha hops out of the car and his boots splash in the puddles. He stretches his long legs and arms, and then winds around the back of my car and to my door. He taps his fist on the window. Sighing, I roll it down. He crouches down so we're eyelevel and rests his arms on the seal of the window. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to explain what that was about?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"An accidental slip of the foot,Ã¢â¬ I say, knowing he's going to read straight through my bull shit lie. Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes it happens.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not with you.Ã¢â¬ His eyes twinkle like sapphires as raindrops bead down his face. Ã¢â¬Å"If you want my attention, just say so.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I want your attention.Ã¢â¬ The truth falls from my lips, shocking us both. He kisses me on the forehead with his wet lips. Ã¢â¬Å"See, that wasn't so hard.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, it was,Ã¢â¬ I surrender, defeated. Ã¢â¬Å"But I'm tired.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of being someone you're not?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That among other things.Ã¢â¬ He lets out an unsteady breath and lowers his voice as he leans close to my ear. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you ready to talk about it?Ã¢â¬ I shake my head. Ã¢â¬Å"Not yet, but maybe soon.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm here when you're ready.Ã¢â¬ He gives a soft suck on the sensitive spot right below my ear, and his tongue tastes my skin before he pulls away. Ã¢â¬Å"You want to race home?Ã¢â¬ He wiggles his eyebrows, teasing me. Ã¢â¬Å"Loser owes the other one a favor.Ã¢â¬ I scrunch up my nose and glance over at his Chevelle. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not stupid enough to think I could ever win that bet.Ã¢â¬ He laughs, sucking his lip ring into his mouth. Ã¢â¬Å"I promise I'll go easy on you.Ã¢â¬ A naughty feeling dances inside me. Ã¢â¬Å"What if I don't want you to go easy on me?Ã¢â¬ He's speechless, which is rare. His gaze bores into me and then he strides forward and kisses me. It's quick, but it steals my breath away.
Monday, September 16, 2019
What will Antonio become when he grows up? A priest? A vaquero? A curandero? A farmer? AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s future is not clear because, at the end of the novel, he has finally decided to choose his own path. Instead of listening to the beliefs of his mother or the desires of his father, he will fulfill UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s encouragement to follow his heart. With this in mind, it seems likely that Antonio will probably become a man of learning according to Ultima, Whether or not this means that Antonio will become a priest as well is uncertain. Considering his questions about religion and morality and his anxieties about sin, it seems as if the life of a priest is not for him. However, no matter what he decides to do when he becomes an adult, the most important thing is that he has learned to make his own path. Ã¢â¬Å"I had more time to spend with Ultima, and in her company I found a great deal of solace and peace.Ã¢â¬ (Anaya 223) If Antonio found solace and peace with Ultima because of what she did (being a curandera). So why should he give up his solace and peace once she was gone? If becomes a curandero he would give himself solace and peace because of what he would do like Ultima. Ã¢â¬Å"I dropped to my knees; bless me, UltimaÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 260) Antonio asked to bless him right before she died. Antonio did not ask her to bless him in the name of God but a being a curandera. This seems to make Antonio not believe in God but in the powers of curandera. Ã¢â¬Å"I bless you in the name of all that is good and strong and beautiful, Antonio. Always have the strength to live. Love life, and if despair enters your heart, look for me in the evenings when the wind is gentle and the owls sing in the hills. I shall be with youÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 261) UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s final blessing to Antonio Her statement also gives Antonio a idea with which to understand her death by offering a sequence of physical objects that he can see as symbols of her life and through which he can continue to feel her presence. Antonio will be without Ultima and will have to make his own choices without her guidance from now on, but she makes it clear in this blessing that her spirit will endure with him and that the lessons she has taught him will still serve him well even after she dies.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
The Rape of the Lock begins with a passage outlining the subject of the poem and invoking the aid of the muse. Then the sun (Ã¢â¬Å"SolÃ¢â¬ ) appears to initiate the leisurely morning routines of a wealthy household. Lapdogs shake themselves awake, bells begin to ring, and although it is already noon, Belinda still sleeps. She has been dreaming, and we learn that Ã¢â¬Å"her guardian Sylph,Ã¢â¬ Ariel, has sent the dream. The dream is of a handsome youth who tells her that she is protected by Ã¢â¬Å"unnumbered SpiritsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âan army of supernatural beings who once lived on earth as human women. The youth explains that they are the invisible guardians of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s chastity, although the credit is usually mistakenly given to Ã¢â¬Å"HonorÃ¢â¬ rather than to their divine stewardship. Of these Spirits, one particular groupÃ¢â¬âthe Sylphs, who dwell in the airÃ¢â¬âserve as BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s personal guardians; they are devoted, lover-like, to any woman that Ã¢â¬Å"re jects mankind,Ã¢â¬ and they understand and reward the vanities of an elegant and frivolous lady like Belinda. Ariel, the chief of all BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s puckish protectors, warns her in the dream that Ã¢â¬Å"some dread eventÃ¢â¬ is going to befall her that day, though he can tell her nothing more specific than that she should Ã¢â¬Å"beware of Man!Ã¢â¬ Then Belinda awakes, to the licking tongue of her lapdog, Shock. Upon the delivery of a billet-doux, or love-letter, she forgets all about the dream. She then proceeds to her dressing table and goes through an elaborate ritual of dressing, in which her own image in the mirror is described as a Ã¢â¬Å"heavenly image,Ã¢â¬ a Ã¢â¬Å"goddess.Ã¢â¬ The Sylphs, unseen, assist their charge as she prepares herself for the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Commentary The opening of the poem establishes its mock-heroic style. Pope introduces the conventional epic subjects of love and war and includes an invocation to the muse and a dedication to the man (the historical John Caryll) who commissioned the poem. Yet the tone already indicates that the high seriousness of these traditional topics has suffered a diminishment. The second line confirms in explicit terms what the first line already suggests: the Ã¢â¬Å"amÃ¢â¬â¢rous causesÃ¢â¬ the poem describes are not comparable to the grand loveÃ of Greek heroes but rather represent a trivialized version of that emotion. The Ã¢â¬Å"contestsÃ¢â¬ Pope alludes to will prove to be Ã¢â¬Å"mightyÃ¢â¬ only in an ironic sense. They are card-games and flirtatious tussles, not the great battles of epic tradition. Belinda is not, like Helen of Troy, Ã¢â¬Å"the face that launched a thousand shipsÃ¢â¬ (see the SparkNote on The Iliad), but rather a face thatÃ¢â¬âalthough also beautifulÃ¢â¬âprompt s a lot of foppish nonsense. The first two verse-paragraphs emphasize the comic inappropriateness of the epic style (and corresponding mind-set) to the subject at hand. Pope achieves this discrepancy at the level of the line and half-line; the reader is meant to dwell on the incompatibility between the two sides of his parallel formulations. Thus, in this world, it is Ã¢â¬Å"little menÃ¢â¬ who in Ã¢â¬Å"tasks so boldÃ¢â¬ ¦ engageÃ¢â¬ ; and Ã¢â¬Å"soft bosomsÃ¢â¬ are the dwelling-place for Ã¢â¬Å"mighty rage.Ã¢â¬ In this startling juxtaposition of the petty and the grand, the former is real while the latter is ironic. In mock epic, the high heroic style works not to dignify the subject but rather to expose and ridicule it. Therefore, the basic irony of the style supports the substance of the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s satire, which attacks the misguided values of a society that takes small matters for serious ones while failing to attend to issues of genuine importance. With BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, Pope introduces the Ã¢â¬Å"machineryÃ¢â¬ of the poemÃ¢â¬âthe supernatural powers that influence the action from behind the scenes. Here, the sprites that watch over Belinda are meant to mimic the gods of the Greek and Roman traditions, who are sometimes benevolent and sometimes malicious, but always intimately involved in earthly events. The scheme also makes use of other ancient hierarchies and systems of order. Ariel explains that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s spirits, when they die, return Ã¢â¬Å"to their first Elements.Ã¢â¬ Each female personality type (these types correspond to the four humours) is converted into a particular kind of sprite. These gnomes, sylphs, salamanders, and nymphs, in turn, are associated with the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water. The airy sylphs are those who in their lifetimes were Ã¢â¬Å"light CoquettesÃ¢â¬ ; they have a particular concern for Belinda because she is of this type, and this will be the aspect of feminine nature with which the poem is most concerned. Indeed, Pope already begins to sketch this character of the Ã¢â¬Å"coquetteÃ¢â¬ in this initial canto. He draws th e portrait indirectly, through characteristics of the Sylphs rather than of Belinda herself. Their priorities reveal that the central concerns ofÃ womanhood, at least for women of BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s class, are social ones. WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"joy in gilded ChariotsÃ¢â¬ indicates an obsession with pomp and superficial splendor, while Ã¢â¬Å"love of Ombre,Ã¢â¬ a fashionable card game, suggests frivolity. The erotic charge of this social world in turn prompts another central concern: the protection of chastity. These are women who value above all the prospect marrying to advantage, and they have learned at an early age how to promote themselves and manipulate their suitors without compromising themselves. The Sylphs become an allegory for the mannered conventions that govern female social behavior. Principles like honor and chastity have become no more than another part of conventional interaction. Pope makes it clear that these women are not conducting themselves on the basis of abstract moral principles, but are governed by an elaborate social mechanismÃ¢â¬âof which the Sylphs cut a fitting caricature. And while PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s technique of employing supernatural machinery allows him to critique this situation, it also helps to keep the satire light and to exonerate individual women from too severe a judgment. If Belinda has all the typical female foibles, Pope wants us to recognize that it is partly because she has been educated and trained to act in this way. The society as a whole is as much to blame as she is. Nor are men exempt from this judgment. The competition among the young lords for the attention of beautiful ladies is depicted as a battle of vanity, as Ã¢â¬Å"wigs with wigs, with sword-knots sword-knots strive.Ã¢â¬ PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s phrases here expose an absurd attention to exhibitions of pride and ostentation. He emphasizes the inanity of discriminating so closely between things and people that are essentially the same in all important (and even most unimportant) respects. PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of Belinda at her dressing table introduces mock-heroic motifs that will run through the poem. The scene of her toilette is rendered first as a religious sacrament, in which Belinda herself is the priestess and her image in the looking glass is the Goddess she serves. This parody of the religious rites before a battle gives way, then, to another kind of mock-epic scene, that of the ritualized arming of the hero. Combs, pins, and cosmetics take the place of weapons as Ã¢â¬Å"awful Beauty puts on all its arms.Ã¢â¬ Canto 2 Summary Belinda, rivaling the sun in her radiance, sets out by boat on the river Thames for Hampton Court Palace. She is accompanied by a party of glitzy ladies (Ã¢â¬Å"NymphsÃ¢â¬ ) and gentlemen, but is far and away the most striking member of the group. PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s description of her charms includes Ã¢â¬Å"the sparkling Cross she woreÃ¢â¬ on her Ã¢â¬Å"white breast,Ã¢â¬ her Ã¢â¬Å"quickÃ¢â¬ eyes and Ã¢â¬Å"lively looks,Ã¢â¬ and the easy grace with which she bestows her smiles and attentions evenly among all the adoring guests. Her crowning glories, though, are the two ringlets that dangle on her Ã¢â¬Å"ivÃ¢â¬â¢ry neck.Ã¢â¬ These curls are described as loveÃ¢â¬â¢s labyrinths, specifically designed to ensnare any poor heart who might get entangled in them. One of the young gentlemen on the boat, the Baron, particularly admires BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s locks, and has determined to steal them for himself. We read that he rose early that morning to build an altar to love and pray for success in this project. He sacrificed several tokens of his former affections, including garters, gloves, and billet-doux (love-letters). He then prostrated himself before a pyre built with Ã¢â¬Å"all the trophies of his former loves,Ã¢â¬ fanning its flames with his Ã¢â¬Å"amÃ¢â¬â¢rous sighs.Ã¢â¬ The gods listened to his prayer but decided to grant only half of it. As the pleasure-boat continues on its way, everyone is carefree except Ariel, who remembers that some bad event has been foretold for the day. He summons an army of sylphs, who assemble around him in their iridescent beauty. He reminds them with great ceremony that one of their duties, after regulating celestial bodies and the weather and guarding the British monarch, is Ã¢â¬Å"to tend the FairÃ¢â¬ : to keep watch over ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ powders, perfumes, curls, and clothing, and to Ã¢â¬Å"assist their blushes, and inspire their airs.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, since Ã¢â¬Å"some dire disasterÃ¢â¬ threatens Belinda, Ariel assigns her an extensive troop of bodyguards. Brillante is to guard her earrings, Momentilla her watch, and Crispissa her locks. Ariel himself will protect Shock, the lapdog. A band of fifty Sylphs will guard the all-important petticoat. Ariel pronounces that any sylph who neglects his assigned duty will be severely punished. They disperse to their posts and wait for fate to unfold. Commentary From the first, Pope describes BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty as something divine, an assessment which she herself corroborates in the first canto when sheÃ creates, at least metaphorically, an altar to her own image. This praise is certainly in some sense ironical, reflecting negatively on a system of public values in which external characteristics rank higher than moral or intellectual ones. But Pope also shows a real reverence for his heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and social charms, claiming in lines 17Ã¢â¬â18 that these are compelling enough to cause one to forget her Ã¢â¬Å"female errors.Ã¢â¬ Certainly he has some interest in flattering Arabella Fermor, the real-life woman on whom Belinda is based; in order for his poem to achieve the desired reconciliation, it must not offend (see Ã¢â¬Å"ContextÃ¢â¬ . Pope also exhibits his appreciation for the ways in which physical beauty is an art form: he recognizes, with a mixture of censure and awe, the fact that BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s legendary locks of hair, which appear so natural and spontaneous, are actually a carefully contrived effect. In this, the mysteries of the ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s dressing table are akin, perhaps, to PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s own literary art, which he describes elsewhere as Ã¢â¬Å"nature to advantage dressÃ¢â¬â¢d.Ã¢â¬ If the secret mechanisms and techniques of female beauty get at least a passing nod of appreciation from the author, he nevertheless suggests that the general human readiness to worship beauty amounts to a kind of sacrilege. The cross that Belinda wears around her neck serves a more ornamental than symbolic or religious function. Because of this, he says, it can be adored by Ã¢â¬Å"JewsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"InfidelsÃ¢â¬ as readily as by Christians. And there is some ambiguity about whether any of the admirers are really valuing the cross itself, or the Ã¢â¬Å"white breastÃ¢â¬ on which it liesÃ¢â¬âor the felicitous effect of the whole. The Baron, of course, is the most significant of those who worship at the altar of BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty. The ritual sacrifices he performs in the pre-d awn hours are another mock-heroic element of the poem, mimicking the epic tradition of sacrificing to the gods before an important battle or journey, and drapes his project with an absurdly grand import that actually only exposes its triviality. The fact that he discards all his other love tokens in these preparations reveals his capriciousness as a lover. Earnest prayer, in this parodic scene, is replaced by the self-indulgent sighs of the lover. By having the gods grant only half of what the Baron asks, Pope alludes to the epic convention by which the favor of the gods is only a mixed blessing: in epic poems, to win the sponsorship of one god is to incur the wrath of another; divine gifts, such as immortality, can seem a blessing but become aÃ curse. Yet in this poem, the ramifications of a prayer Ã¢â¬Å"halfÃ¢â¬ granted are negligible rather than tragic; it merely means that he will manage to steal just one lock rather than both of them. In the first canto, the religious imagery surrounding BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming rituals gave way to a militaristic conceit. Here, the same pattern holds. Her curls are compared to a trap perfectly calibrated to ensnare the enemy. Yet the character of female coyness is such that it se eks simultaneously to attract and repel, so that the counterpart to the enticing ringlets is the formidable petticoat. This undergarment is described as a defensive armament comparable to the Shield of Achilles (see Scroll XVIII of The Iliad), and supported in its function of protecting the maidenÃ¢â¬â¢s chastity by the invisible might of fifty Sylphs. The Sylphs, who are BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s protectors, are essentially charged to protect her not from failure but from too great a success in attracting men. This paradoxical situation dramatizes the contradictory values and motives implied in the eraÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual conventions. In this canto, the sexual allegory of the poem begins to come into fuller view. The title of the poem already associates the cutting of BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s hair with a more explicit sexual conquest, and here Pope cultivates that suggestion. He multiplies his sexually metaphorical language for the incident, adding words like Ã¢â¬Å"ravishÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"betrayÃ¢â¬ to the Ã¢â¬Å"rapeÃ¢â¬ of the title. He also slips in some commentary on the implications of his societyÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual mores, as when he remarks that Ã¢â¬Å"when success a LoverÃ¢â¬â¢s toil attends, / few ask, if fraud or force attainÃ¢â¬â¢d his ends.Ã¢â¬ When Ariel speculates about the possible forms the Ã¢â¬Å"dire disasterÃ¢â¬ might take, he includes a breach of chastity (Ã¢â¬Å"DianaÃ¢â¬â¢s lawÃ¢â¬ ), the breaking of china (another allusion to the loss of virginity), and the staining of honor or a gown (the two incommensurate events could happen equally easily and accidentally). He also mentions some pettier social Ã¢â¬Å"disastersÃ¢â¬ against which the Sylphs are equally prepared to fight, like missing a ball (here, as grave as missing prayers) or losing the lapdog. In the SylphsÃ¢â¬â¢ defensive efforts, BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s petticoat is the battlefield that requires the most extensive fortifications. This fact furthers the idea that the rape of the lock stands in for a literal rape, or at least re presents a threat to her chastity more serious than just the mere theft of a curl. Summary The boat arrives at Hampton Court Palace, and the ladies and gentlemen disembark to their courtly amusements. After a pleasant round of chatting and gossip, Belinda sits down with two of the men to a game of cards. They play ombre, a three-handed game of tricks and trumps, somewhat like bridge, and it is described in terms of a heroic battle: the cards are troops combating on the Ã¢â¬Å"velvet plainÃ¢â¬ of the card-table. Belinda, under the watchful care of the Sylphs, begins favorably. She declares spades as trumps and leads with her highest cards, sure of success. Soon, however, the hand takes a turn for the worse when Ã¢â¬Å"to the Baron fate inclines the fieldÃ¢â¬ : he catches her king of clubs with his queen and then leads back with his high diamonds. Belinda is in danger of being beaten, but recovers in the last trick so as to just barely win back the amount she bid. The next ritual amusement is the serving of coffee. The curling vapors of the steaming coffee remind the Baron of his intention to attempt BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s lock. Clarissa draws out her scissors for his use, as a lady would arm a knight in a romance. Taking up the scissors, he tries three times to clip the lock from behind without Belinda seeing. The Sylphs endeavor furiously to intervene, blowing the hair out of harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way and tweaking her diamond earring to make her turn around. Ariel, in a last-minute effort, gains access to her brain, where he is surprised to find Ã¢â¬Å"an earthly lover lurking at her heart.Ã¢â¬ He gives up protecting her then; the implication is that she secretly wants to be violated. Finally, the shears close on the curl. A daring sylph jumps in between the blades and is cut in two; but being a supernatural creature, he is quickly restored. The deed is done, and the Baron exults while BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s screams fill the air. Commentary This canto is full of classic examples of PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s masterful use of the heroic couplet. In introducing Hampton Court Palace, he describes it as the place where Queen Anne Ã¢â¬Å"dost sometimes counsel takeÃ¢â¬âand sometimes tea.Ã¢â¬ This line employs a zeugma, a rhetorical device in which a word or phrase modifies two other words or phrases in a parallel construction, but modifies each in a different way or according to a different sense. Here, the modifying word is Ã¢â¬Å"takeÃ¢â¬ ; it applies to the paralleled terms Ã¢â¬Å"counselÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tea.Ã¢â¬ But one doesÃ not Ã¢â¬Å"takeÃ¢â¬ tea in the same way one takes counsel, and the effect of the zeugma is to show the royal residence as a place that houses both serious matters of state and frivolous social occasions. The reader is asked to contemplate that paradox and to reflect on the relative value and importance of these two different registers of activity. (For another example of this rhetorical techniq ue, see lines 157Ã¢â¬â8: Ã¢â¬Å"Not louder shrieks to pitying heaven are cast, / when husbands, or when lapdogs breathe their last.Ã¢â¬ ) A similar point is made, in a less compact phrasing, in the second and third verse-paragraphs of this canto. Here, against the gossip and chatter of the young lords and ladies, Pope opens a window onto more serious matters that are occurring Ã¢â¬Å"meanwhileÃ¢â¬ and elsewhere, including criminal trials and executions, and economic exchange. The rendering of the card game as a battle constitutes an amusing and deft narrative feat. By parodying the battle scenes of the great epic poems, Pope is suggesting that the energy and passion once applied to brave and serious purposes is now expended on such insignificant trials as games and gambling, which often become a mere front for flirtation. The structure of Ã¢â¬Å"the three attemptsÃ¢â¬ by which the lock is cut is a convention of heroic challenges, particularly in the romance genre. The romance is further invoked in the image of Clarissa arming the BaronÃ¢â¬ânot with a real weapon, however, but with a pair of sewing scissors. Belinda is not a real adversary, or course, and Pope makes it plain that her resistanceÃ¢â¬âand, by implication, her subsequent distressÃ¢â¬âis to some degree an affectation. The melodrama of her screams is complemented by the ironic comparison of the BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s feat to the conquest of nations. BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"anxious caresÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"secret passionsÃ¢â¬ after the loss of her lock are equal to the emotions of all who have ever known Ã¢â¬Å"rage, resentment and despair.Ã¢â¬ After the disappointed Sylphs withdraw, an earthy gnome called Umbriel flies down to the Ã¢â¬Å"Cave of Spleen.Ã¢â¬ (The spleen, an organ that removes disease-causing agents from the bloodstream, was traditionally associated with the passions, particularly malaise; Ã¢â¬Å"spleenÃ¢â¬ is a synonym for Ã¢â¬Å"ill-temper.Ã¢â¬ ) In his descent he passes through BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom, where she lies prostrate with discomfiture and the headache. She is attended byÃ Ã¢â¬Å"two handmaidens,Ã¢â¬ Ill-Nature and Affectation. Umbriel passes safely through this melancholy chamber, holding a sprig of Ã¢â¬Å"spleenwortÃ¢â¬ before him as a charm. He addresses the Ã¢â¬Å"Goddess of Spleen,Ã¢â¬ and returns with a bag of Ã¢â¬Å"sighs, sobs, and passionsÃ¢â¬ and a vial of sorrow, grief, and tears. He unleashes the first bag on Belinda, fueling her ire and despair. There to commiserate with Belinda is her friend Thalestris. (In Greek mythology, Thalestris is the name of one of the Amazons, a race of warrior women who excluded men from their society.) Thalestris delivers a speech calculated to further foment BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s indignation and urge her to avenge herself. She then goes to Sir Plume, Ã¢â¬Å"her beau,Ã¢â¬ to ask him to demand that the Baron return the hair. Sir Plume makes a weak and slang-filled speech, to which the Baron disdainfully refuses to acquiesce. At this, Umbriel releases the contents of the remaining vial, throwing Belinda into a fit of sorrow and self-pity. With Ã¢â¬Å"beauteous griefÃ¢â¬ she bemoans her fate, regrets not having heeded the dream-warning, and laments the lonely, pitiful state of her sole remaining curl. Commentary The canto opens with a list of examples of Ã¢â¬Å"rage, resentment, and despair,Ã¢â¬ comparing on an equal footing the pathos of kings imprisoned in battle, of women who become old maids, of evil-doers who die without being saved, and of a woman whose dress is disheveled. By placing such disparate sorts of aggravation in parallel, Pope accentuates the absolute necessity of assigning them to some rank of moral import. The effect is to chastise a social world that fails to make these distinctions. UmbrielÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to the Cave of Spleen mimics the journeys to the underworld made by both Odysseus and Aeneas. Pope uses psychological allegory (for the spleen was the seat of malaise or melancholy), as a way of exploring the sources and nature of BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. The presence of Ill-nature and Affectation as handmaidens serves to indicate that her grief is less than pure (Ã¢â¬Å"affectedÃ¢â¬ or put-on), and that her display of temper has hidden motives. We learn that her sorrow is decorative in much the same way the curl was; it gives her the occasion, for example, to wear a new nightdress. The speech of Thalestris invokes a courtly ethic. She encourages Belinda to think about the BaronÃ¢â¬â¢s misdeed as an affront to her honor, and draws on ideals of chivalry inÃ demanding that Sir Plume challenge the Baron in defense of BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s honor. He makes a muddle of the task, showing how far from courtly behavior this generation of gentlemen has fallen. Sir PlumeÃ¢â¬â¢s speech is riddled with foppish slang and has none of the logical, moral, or oratorical power that a knight should properly wield. This attention to questions of honor returns us to the sexual allegory of the poem. The real danger, Thalestris suggests, is that Ã¢â¬Å"the ravisherÃ¢â¬ might display the lock and make it a source of public humiliation to Belinda and, by association, to her friends. Thus the real question is a superficial oneÃ¢â¬âpublic reputationÃ¢â¬ârather than the moral imperative to chastity. BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s own words at the close of the canto corroborate this suggestion; she exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, hadst thou, cruel! been content to seize / Hairs less in sight, or any hairs but these!Ã¢â¬ (The Ã¢â¬Å"hairs less in sightÃ¢â¬ suggest her pubic hair). Pope is pointing out the degree to which she values outward appearance (whether beauty or reputation) above all else; she would rather suffer a breach to her integrity than a breach to her appearance. The Baron remains impassive against all the ladiesÃ¢â¬â¢ tears and reproaches. Clarissa delivers a speech in which she questions why a society that so adores beauty in women does not also place a value on Ã¢â¬Å"good senseÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"good humour.Ã¢â¬ Women are frequently called angels, she argues, but without reference to the moral qualities of these creatures. Especially since beauty is necessarily so short-lived, we must have something more substantial and permanent to fall back on. This sensible, moralizing speech falls on deaf ears, however, and Belinda, Thalestris and the rest ignore her and proceed to launch an all-out attack on the offending Baron. A chaotic tussle ensues, with the gnome Umbriel presiding in a posture of self- congratulation. The gentlemen are slain or revived according to the smiles and frowns of the fair ladies. Belinda and the Baron meet in combat and she emerges victorious by peppering him with snuff and drawing her bodkin. Having achieved a position of advantage, she again demands that he return the lock. But the ringlet has been lost in the chaos, and cannot be found. The poet avers that the lock has risen to the heavenly spheres to become a star; stargazers may admire it now for all eternity. In this way, the poet reasons, it will attract more envy than it ever could on earth. Commentary Readers have often interpreted ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech as the voice of the poetÃ expressing the moral of the story. Certainly, her orationÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis aligns with PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s professed task of putting the dispute between the two families into a more reasonable perspective. But PopeÃ¢â¬â¢s position achieves more complexity than ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, since he has used the occasion of the poem as a vehicle to critically address a number of broader societal issues as well. And ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s righteous stance loses authority in light of the fact that it was she who originally gave the Baron the scissors. ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to inspire a reconciliation proves that the quarrel is itself a kind of flirtatious game that all parties are enjoying. The description of the Ã¢â¬Å"battleÃ¢â¬ has a markedly erotic quality, as ladies and lords wallow in their mock-agonies. Sir Plume Ã¢â¬Å"draw[s] Clarissa downÃ¢â¬ in a sexual way, and Belinda Ã¢â¬Å"fliesÃ¢â¬ on her foe with flashing eyes and an erotic ardor. When Pope informs us that the Baron fights on unafraid because he Ã¢â¬Å"sought no more than on his foe to die,Ã¢â¬ the expression means that his goal all along was sexual consummation. This final battle is the culmination of the long sequence of mock-heroic military actions. Pope invokes by name the Roman gods who were most active in warfare, and he alludes as well to the Aeneid , comparing the stoic Baron to Aeneas (Ã¢â¬Å"the TrojanÃ¢â¬ ), who had to leave his love to become the founder of Rome. BelindaÃ¢â¬â¢s tossing of the snuff makes a perfect turning point, ideally suited to the scale of this trivial battle. The snuff causes the Baron to sneeze, a comic and decidedly unheroic thing for a hero to do. The bodkin, too, serves nicely: here a bodkin is a decorative hairpin, not the weapon of ancient days (or even of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s time). Still, Pope gives the pin an elaborate history in accordance with the conventions of true epic. The mock-heroic conclusion of the poem is designed to compliment the lady it alludes to (Arabella Fermor), while also giving the poet himself due credit for being the instrument of her immortality. This ending effectively indulges the heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s vanity, even though the poem has functioned throughout as a critique of that vanity. And no real moral development has taken place: Belinda is asked to come to terms with her loss through a kind of bribe or distraction that reinforces her basically frivolous outlook. But even in its most mocking moments, this poem is a gentle one, in which Pope shows a basic sympathy with the social world in spite of its folly and foibles. The searing critiques of his later satires would be much more stringent and less forgiving.