Thursday, June 25, 2020

Duty of care-negligence - Free Essay Example

Under the duty of care, there is another test used by the court in determining whether there is negligence in carrying out the duty of care which lead to the other person suffering from the damage as a consequences of the act. The test said in the above is called the Caparo( composite) test. This test is based on the principle established in the case of Caparo Industries plc V Dickman. In the case, Lord Bridge acknowledged that the lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s tendency had been reverted to the traditional categories of recognizable situations in the imposition of a duty of care. In accordance to this principle, instead of the plaintiff needing to establish a duty, proving that his situation falls squarely into any of the recognized categories, the plaintiff only needs to established that the duty of care arises in his situation because it accords with existing policy and decisions in other comparable cases.[1] The general rule of this principle is that a plaintiff who suffers physical damage to his property will not have difficulty in establishing a duty of care. This situation is seen in the case of Marc Rich Co AG V British Rock Marine Co Ltd. In the case, it involve a vessel belonging to the first defendant carrying the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cargo. In the mid of the voyage, the ship had developed a crack. The first defendant called in the marine classificat ion society, the third defendant, which then surveyed the ship and eventually gave the ship a certified proof to continue its voyage. Unfortunately, after a several days, the ship sank, in consequence the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cargo which worth about six million pound was lost. Part of the sum was recovered from the first defendant, the balance is claimed from the third defendant.[2] In the case above, it is not difficult to see that the surveyor had acted in negligent while inspecting the ship before giving the green light for the ship to continue its voyage. It is also foreseeable in the case that the said act could possibly cause the ship to sink, causing physical damage suffered by the plaintiff after his goods was lost. But in this case, the House of Lord, in a majority judgment founded that the third defendant did not owe any duty of care, this decision is according to policy factors, primarily insurance plays a bigger role. As a result from the case, the principl e was established in the development, from its establishment the English court are more cautious when faced with cases involving facts showing duty of care and facts not showing the duty of care. By referring to the case of March Rich, it is decided that in cases like this there are three factors that must be fulfilled to established a duty of care. First is the damage is reasonably foreseeable. Second, is there a close and direct relationship of proximity between the plaintiff and the defendant and third, the circumstances as a whole must be such that it is fair, just and reasonable for the imposition of a duty of care. Under the principle, it uses the foreseeable concept to measure, the court will determine whether or not the plaintiff is a foreseeable victim or not. This concept also involve the use of proximity between the parties, is it close enough to satisfy the proximity that is needed to establish the duty of care. In Malaysia, the application of this test is straight forward, in ascertaining the existence of the duty of care. For the first element, an early example of its usage in Malaysia is in the case of Sathu V Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co Ltd. In this case, it involve nineteen heads of cattle which belonged to the plaintiff strayed onto the estate of the defendant while grazing. The estate had been sprayed with sodium arsenate a few days before and resulting in the death of the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cattle grazing in the area of the estate. In this case, the plaintiff alleged the breach of common law duty to a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"neighbourà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ committed by the defendant under the principle from the case of Donoghue V Stevenson. It was held that the principle cannot be apply in this case because the death of the cattle was not foreseeable because the defendant does not know that the plaintiffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s cattle would stray into the estate.[3] The above case is used in the test that the circumstances must be just an d reasonable, it is the same as in the case of Lok Kwan Moi Ors V Ramli B. Jamil Ors Government of Malaysia. The case involve the arrest of fisherman who are gambling, they all jumped into the river but was arrested in upon reaching the land, but one particular fisherman having difficulty swimming was drown. It was alleged that before the drowning another fisherman was trying to help but was chased off by the police, in the circumstances it was thought to be foreseeable for any reasonable man to foreseen that the fisherman would likely drown. It was held that the policeman and the Government were liable to the death of the fisherman. [4] For the second element, it involve the use of the neighbor principle as used in the case of Donoghue V Stevenson and used in the case of Sathu V Hawthornden Rubber Estate Co Ltd. This can be seen also on the case of Abdul Malik bin Idrus Ors V Tan Jee Han. This case uses the neighbor principles in proving the duty of care of the first appella nt towards the respondent had been breached. This can also be seen in the case of Syarizan bin Sudirman Ors V Abdul Rahman bin Bukit Anor. In this case, it involve the plaintiff receiving injury caused by a pursuing policeman, kicking his motorcycle in order to force him to stop, which caused him to crash and sustain serious injury. The question before the court was whether the policeman had breach his duty of care towards the plaintiff when he kicked the motorcycle, the court in this case found in favor of the plaintiff that the policeman did not exercise care and skill as was reasonable in all circumstances.[5] In the two cases of Abdul Malik bin Idrus Ors V Tan Jee Han and Syarizan bin Sudirman Ors V Abdul Rahman bin Bukit Anor it could also be used in determining the existence of the third element, which is whether the circumstances as whole must be such that it is fair, just and reasonable for the imposition of a duty of care. For example in the two cases, the court established in what situation is the policeman is liable to have breach their duty of care and when do the duty of care is impose on them. There is also questions raised, whether in using this principle does it apply in cases involving damages which is purely economic in nature. In the case of Arab-Malaysian Finance Bhd V Steven Phoa Cheng Loon Ors, it involves the collapse of several block after a continuos rainfall for ten days many lost their lives as a consequence to the collapse. There were three blocks of apartment involve in this litigation, the 2nd and 3rd block brought an action against ten defendants because the first block caused the collapse of the two blocks. Some defendant was dismissed, there is only a few defendant left the local authority, the owner, the engineer, another owner of the adjacent land and the person who provides management services. In this case it did not refer to the case of Uniphone Sdn Bhd V Chin Boon Lit Anor in determining the duty where the loss occasionally was purely economic, in this case it was thought that the foreseeability test and neighbor principle was sufficient in proving the duty of care towards the plaintiffs.[6] [1] [1990] 1 All ER 568, HL [2] [1995] 3 All ER 307, HL [3] [1961] MLJ 318 [4] [1984] 1 MLJ 46 [5] [2010] 8 MLJ 530 [6] [2003] 2 AMR 6, CA

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Euthanasia - The Final Choice in Life - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1174 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/02/06 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Topics: Euthanasia Essay Did you like this example? Euthanasia has long been a contentious debate among Americans, because of its end result: death. The Washington v. Glucksberg case of 1997 resulted in the ban of assisted suicide on June 26, 1997, by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Euthanasia The Final Choice in Life" essay for you Create order (Washington v. Glucksberg,† 1997, pp. 315-322) Some people in society feel that assisted suicide is an acceptable practice for those suffering from terminal illnesses or other major medical conditions, while others are objectionable based on religious or moral beliefs. They have a strong secure emotional connection to their suffering family member or friend and strive to keep them alive for as long as possible. I believe that it is not the best-case scenario to keep someone suffering from ineffable discomfort, prolonging the inevitable. I believe that patients with serious terminal illnesses should have a choice whether or not they would like to pass on from their suffering. Terminally ill patients and their caregivers may consider euthanasia due to many medical reasons. Dementia, for example, is a condition that impacts the brain causing memory loss and lack of judgment, among other complications. Over time without treatment, it can deteriorate your brain’s main functions and will eventually leave the person in a vegetative state. Eventually, some people with terminal illnesses will be unable to communicate their final wishes and will no longer play a part in their care. Patients that reach a nonverbal state will be left to suffer the pains and discomfort caused by their ailment. For instance, a terminally-ill patient that depends on a machine to regulate their heartbeat, blood flow, and her respirations for an extended period. The patient now complains that the tubes, pricking needles, and various complicated machines keeping them alive are overwhelming and stressful; the wants to move on from the pain and be free from the torment. This is a goo d example of a direct and passive act of performing euthanasia on a patient; when the patient is actively dying and wants to end their suffering. â€Å"Euthanasia has several forms –voluntary (death at patient’s will), involuntary (death at other’s will when patient is unconscious or not competent to decide), direct (giving patient direct lethal drug to die), indirect (providing treatment which can expedite patient death), active (death is brought about by an act), and passive (letting someone die either by withdrawing or withholding treatment). (Srivastava, 2014) Overall, it depends on the patient’s medical condition and their desires or the wishes of the patient’s relatives when the patient cannot communicate properly. Euthanasia is a complex decision that involves the patient, family, and members of the healthcare team, and affects everyone differently. End of life care can cause a highly emotional response with friends and family of the terminally ill patient. Extreme emotion and an unwillingness to see the patient die can cause family to request that doctors make all attempts to keep th e patient alive against the patient’s will. I believe that it is necessary to afford the right to euthanasia to a patient when they are capable of making the decision for themselves. Permitting euthanasia will allow patients to protect themselves from a prolonged and painful death when they are no longer able to communicate, when family members refuse to let go. It would be best to get it over with and spare the loved individual from any more pain. In a magazine article, Nursing 2015 Issue: Volume 45(3), a lady describes her father as being diagnosed with dementia and forgetting who he was. She stated, â€Å"Can you medicate away the sheer terror I frequently saw on my fathers face when he forgot who he was, where he was, what he was doing, and who the people around him were? Once a voracious reader, he struggled to read a childrens book; then he could no longer read at all. He could neither participate in conversations nor follow his beloved Mets play a game on TV. He couldnt play with his grandchildren or even recognize them. Everything that made my father who he was, was gone, with zero chance of cure or recovery.† (Humphrey Warsh, 2015, p. 8) A group effort between family and friends is needed when determining the fate of the terminally-ill. â€Å" Family life has a common good-reciprocal love, care, and support between family members. Groups of friends too share in the common good of their inter-personal relationships built upon a sense of mutual regard.† (Bowie, Paterson, Sorell, 2008, p. 167) Deeply held religious beliefs can also be a deciding factor with euthanasia. Concerning suicide itself, rather than one dying to end their torment from their medical conditions, the Bible teaches important lessons on refraining from suicide, even when the chance is given or just by desire. For instance, Job asked for his death when Satan made sure that all of his children were dead, stripped Job of all of his vast wealth, and put an unknown number of diseases on him, thus, leaving Job on a pile of ash and completely covered with scabs. â€Å"May it please God to crush me, to give his hand free play and do away with me! This thought, at least, would give me comfort (a thrill of joy in unrelenting pain), that I never rebelled against the Holy Ones decrees. But have I the strength to go on waiting? And why be patient, when doomed to such an end?†1 (Barry, 1997, p. 290) Most of the time, there are those who agreed with the idea of euthanasia just by their morals and empathy, instead by religious factors. â€Å"In the studies by Asai et al. and Tanida et al., an overwhelming majority (85%) stated they based their views on secular ethical principles. Only 3% of the respondents stated that their opinions had been influenced by a religious ethical approach.† (Gielen, van den Branden, Broeckaert, 2009, p. 309) Euthanasia has long been a contentious debate among Americans, because of its end result: death. Although it is considered unconstitutional in all but a few states in America, other people consider assisted suicide as an escape from prolonged death that other families may strive for their dying loved ones with terminal illnesses. I think that anyone that is suffering from a terminal illness or any other untreatable medical condition, should have a say whether they want to end their life. However, not only does the ill patient’s choice matter, but the emotional connections and desires from the relatives have an effect. They can also choose to perform euthanasia if the patient is incapable of deciding their fate. The other factor that can still determine the terminally-ill’s decision is their religious belief. Euthanasia is varied greatly, depending on the religion practiced. Most individuals who were surveyed on the prospect of euthanasia stated that they would do assisted suicide by their own ethics rather than by religious factors. (Gielen, van den Branden, Broeckaert, 2009, p. 309) To me, it would be immoral to leave a person to suffer unnecessarily. It is just a waste of time, money for the family, and effort for the doctors to take care of the individual for long periods of time.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Decision Making Is Defined As A Cognitive Process

Forum 2: Original post Decision Making In life individuals are faced with a continuous flow of decisions to be made and problems to be solved. Decision making is defined as a cognitive process in which a choice is developed regarding a belief or course of action from among two or more alternatives (Robbins Judge, 2009). Individuals compose decisions as a reaction to a problem, a perceived deviation linking the present condition and a desired condition (Robbins, 2009). For example, in the radiation oncology field, multiple devices are used to make treatments more accurate, reproducible, and elevate patient comfort. These devices are used frequently so they quickly become worn. They must be checked periodically to ensure structural stability and compliance with infectious control regulations. Employees are given the task of examining the devices, making decisions regarding the condition of the devices, and reporting what needs to be replaced. Managers and employees must keep in mind that incessant replacement of these devi ces is costly and can cause interruptions in patient care. Managers and employees should compose optimal decisions regarding the care and replacement of such devices in order to be effective, efficient, and productive. Rational Decision Making Model One process discussed in organizational behavior for decision making is the Rational Decision Making Model. This model employs six steps for decision making: 1. Interpret the problem. 2. Determine the decisionShow MoreRelatedEffective Appraisal Approaches And Its Influence On Investment Decision Making1441 Words   |  6 PagesIn business, in the word of investment can be defined as the outflow of money for the purchase of valuable item with an expectation of positive future return or the purchase of equipment or inventory by owner in order to improve future business. (Kahraman, 2011) Moreover, the part of decision-making acts a crucial role in business investment that depends upon the investor’s profit expectation, the availability to finance the investment and the potential cost of assets. (Virlics, 2013) However, riskRead MoreEffective Appraisal Approaches And Its Influence On Investment Decision Making1419 Words   |  6 PagesIn business, the word of investment can be defined as the outflow of money for the purchase of valuable item with an expectation of positive future return or the purchase of equipment or inventory by owner in order to improve fu ture business. (Kahraman, 2011) Moreover, the part of decision-making preforms a crucial role in business investment that depends upon the investor’s profit expectation, the availability to finance the investment and the potential cost of asset. (Virlics, 2013) However, riskRead MoreCognitive and Behavioural Model1364 Words   |  6 Pageswill analyze in this essay to see which is the most suitable approach to understand consumer behaviour, they are cognitive and behavioural models, there are actually three models lies within initial decisions of consumer behavior, the third one is reinforcement model but in this case we will not analyze it. First of all, the way of starting off the essay is by defining both cognitive and behavioural models found from the journals, followed by comparison between the two models, which are the bestRead MoreToyota s Implementation Of The Behavioral Model910 Words   |  4 Pageshis management team have implemented a poor managerial decision m aking model when attempting to rectify their crisis. This report will evaluate and argue that the implementation of the behavioural model, specifically satisficing decision making, was at the forefront when Toyota recalled their cars, on the notion that the floor mats where at the centre of the incidents. In addition, it will analyse how Toyota’s poor managerial decision-making, during a time crisis, also lacked cost-benefit analysisRead MoreLifespan Studies: Cognitive, Language, Social and Emotional, Physical and Holistic Development, and Discuss How Te Whariki Supports and Promotes the Development of Each Domain in the Early Childhood Sector.1113 Words   |  5 PagesThis essay will describe five developmental domains, Cognitive, Language, Social and Emotional, Physical and Holistic Development, and discuss how Te Whariki supports and promotes the development of each domain in the early childhood sector. The definition of Cognitive Development as stated by the Encyclopaedia of Childrens Health, is the construction of thought processes, including remembering, problem-solving and decision-making from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. According toRead MoreThe Principles Of Effective Management1186 Words   |  5 PagesModern adoptions of the principles founded in the scientific and bureaucratic management approaches still exist and can be found in companies with simple and defined processes that rely heavily on quantifiable data while retaining low problem-solving requirements. An example of such an adoption would be an organization that utilizes a business-process approach to management that exploits components such as internal business processes and metrics created by people in leadership positions in order to determineRead MoreIn the modern finance theory , behavioral finance is a new paradigm , which seeks to appreciate and1000 Words   |  4 Pagessystematic financial market influence of psychological decision making ( Olsen R A, 1998). In the recent studies irrationality in the decision making was revealed , based on certain cognitive limitations. The present chapter is divided into two aspects According to traditional models in finance and economics, human beings are rational while taking their decision. However the recent studies explain that decision making is based on certain cognitive limitations. As the information’s are overloaded, weRead MoreDecision Making An Effective Decision1094 Words   |  5 PagesDecision-making is an important process. It can be a task, which needs a simple decision to be made or a difficult situation involving several issues. In difficult situations, there may be uncertainty and complexities, wherein there may be interrelated factors that could lead to high-risk consequences, the impact of the decision made could be very important. Every situation will have its own set of uncertainties and consequences. Interpersonal issues too come in the way of making an effective decisionRead MoreAdrian Monk Essay738 Words   |  3 Pageswhether he turned off the gas or where he last put his keys. Monk’s personality is very different tha n many other people. There are four key psychological concepts that describe Monk. The First concept is Socialization. Socialization is a lifelong process of shaping on individuals behavior patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform. Monk was a normal individual as he was growing up. He didn’t have any OCD problems during his younger years. But because of the incident thatRead MoreDecision Making Of A Public Policy929 Words   |  4 PagesDecision-making in Public Policy has evolved into two camps: the camp that favors decision-making based more on techniques derived from mathematics, economics, and management science; and the camp that favors decision-making based more on politics. The former is often referred to as ideal decision-making, while the latter is referred to as real decision-making. Decision-making in management science is taking into account suppositions that complex issues can be broken down into littler parts that

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on A Drifing Mind Alzheimer´s Disease - 602 Words

The article I decided to go with was â€Å"Special Nursing Home Units for Residents with Primary Degenerative Dementia: Alzheimers disease†. The reason I went with this article was because I wanted to focus on a different stage of life. I also have family that has had Alzheimer’s disease. I think this was one of the hardest things I have seen in my life. My aunt would remember my name one moment and forget I was even alive the next. The purpose of this article is to educate those interested in this disease to learn how to deal with them in nursing homes. The research question asked here is how to deal with those with Alzheimer’s in the nursing homes. The article that I focused on was focused on at-risk or vulnerable populations. The†¦show more content†¦I say this because I would be so confused and at a loss of what is going on. Social workers would want to help a person like this by advocating the needs that they need and by providing the service that the person may need. The author arrives at their conclusion and findings by researchers. This person actually went into a nursing home and found the relevant issues of someone who has Alzheimer’s. They did this because they wanted to be able to help someone with this. They wanted to give the services to someone like this just like anyone else. I think that, as a social worker, this is very important. I also think that the research done was great because the person did it hands on. I think the best research is when you have the information first hand. I actually worked in a nursing home that had a special needs unit for Alzheimer’s unit. I think this was very nice of them because the social worker would help them. I would be to use this information from this article into practice by advocating for my clients. The fact that I have actually dealt with Alzheimer’s patients is something that has prepared me for my future. This article talks about how social workers help people with this disease cope, I think I would be able to do this because of the information and experience that I have from real life and the article. I choose this article because I really want to help people with this disease at some pont in my life. I also decided to use this article because I

Gender and Women Free Essays

Oppression is a word that is often misunderstood and misused. In Marilyn Frye’s article, Oppression, a central theme is created that focuses on male control, and how it is a form of oppression that affects the lives of women (Frye, 9). My reasons for agreeing with Frye’s argument that only women are oppressed as their own gender will be further discussed by focusing on how women are forced into particular roles. We will write a custom essay sample on Gender and Women or any similar topic only for you Order Now Additionally, I will explain how there is a mutual barrier of oppression where women are oppressed for the benefit of men, and how women will always be immobilized and degraded to benefit other groups regardless of their race or economic status. Frye defines oppression as often being thought of as the limitation or suffering of any human for any reason or cause. She argues that this statement is incorrect and highlights that humans can be miserable without being oppressed. Frye defines being oppressed as similar to being molded, immobilized and reduced by forces or barriers. She relates this concept to the â€Å"category† of women and how they are constantly caught between forces or barriers that are a disadvantage to them. It is explained that women, regardless of race, religion or economic status, will always be oppressed because â€Å"being a woman is significantly attached to whatever disadvantages and deprivations she suffers, be they great or small†(Frye, 16). Frye highlights that oppression is a double bind barrier in which one group will suffer for the betterment of the other. Men oppress women with a variety of different elements that collaboratively immobilize, reduce, and mold the lives of women. She concludes that women are oppressed as women, which adds limitations to what they can do in life, and men are not oppressed as men by shedding light on the fact that being a man is something that they have going for them (Frye, 9-16). It is clear that everyone, either male or female, acts a certain way around someone of the same sex, as opposed to someone of the opposite sex. Frye explains that both males and females have certain restraints on what behavior is acceptable for them, and how â€Å"women restraint is part of a structure oppressive to women and the men restraint is part of a structure oppressive to women† (Frye, 16). Women can act â€Å"un-lady like† when they are only around other women, however as soon as men are in the picture, a woman is expected to act a specific way. Men and women have grown up in different gender roles, where they do certain things and act in a certain way that differs from the other sex. Nonetheless, men seem to oppress women into certain roles so strongly that it results in men also having to live up to particular roles. If a woman is expected to sit up straight, then a man is expected to play the opposite role and slouch, to ensure their masculinity. If a woman is expected to eat healthy and stay slim, a man is expected to work out and get buff. By creating standards or roles that women have to live up to, men create social standards for themselves unintentionally. However this does not mean that they are oppressed, because men do not miss out on opportunities for being a male. Being able to recognize this difference is crucial. There are several ways in which men oppress women, in turn creating social standards for themselves without being oppressed. Frye uses the example of a man opening a door for a woman. At a microscopic level, it looks like the man is being polite, and removing a barrier for a woman to walk freely (Frye, 12). By simply opening the door for a woman who is capable of doing it herself, men are oppressing women as unable (Frye, 12). As a result, men create a new social â€Å"mold† for themselves, where they have to be a gentleman and ensure that they get to the door first. So does this mean that women oppress men? Fyre argues that there is a mutual barrier within oppression. For example, when looking at a prison, there is a barrier that separates the prisoners from citizens. The prisoners are restrained to ensure the safety of the citizens outside of the prison. These barriers take away from the freedom and liberty of the prisoners, while intensifying the freedom of the citizens (Frye 14). This scenario is similar to how men oppress women. Men sometimes believe that they are oppressed into the â€Å"mold† of masculinity, and are unable to be nurturing (Frye, 14). Nonetheless, men restrict themselves to this role in order to maintain their superiority, while women are oppressed into roles, which act as a huge disadvantage to them. As a result of being oppressed by men, women will always be immobilized and degraded to benefit another group. Although men are constrained by the oppression of women, women have to fit into a tighter mold. Frye underlines that one’s suffering is partly because one is a member of a specific category. In this case, being a woman is a huge factor that gets in the way of her everyday life (Frye, 16). McGinn (2012) explains that in the early 19th century, women were not expected to work and earn their own living. They rarely had careers, and most professions were refused to women and saved for men (McGinn, 2012). Today, women are allowed to work, and have an equal chance of getting the same jobs as males. However, there are underlying bias’ that affect a woman from being respected in the position as highly as a male. For example, a lot of individuals take male police officers more seriously than female police officers, even though they have the same qualifications. This is just one of many examples of how women are oppressed and further degraded in order to give men the role of being the more dominant sex. Frye’s argument on how women are oppressed as women and how men are not oppressed as men is indeed correct. Women are consistently degraded and shaped into particular roles, which benefit men and other social groups. Regardless of a women’s economic status, race, or culture, they will always be victimized for solely being a women. It is clear, that when looking at the barriers of oppression, that women are confined to the side that is oppressed, giving all dominance to the male sex. Future generations should work towards creating a more equal lifestyle between women and other social groups, allowing women to achieve roles in which they want to fulfill. How to cite Gender and Women, Papers

Modernism essay sample Example For Students

Modernism essay sample â€Å"An inclination to subjective distortion to point up the evanescence of the social world of the nineteenth century bourgeoisie.† -Barth, â€Å"Literature of Replenishment† (www.iath.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0255.html) Modernism was rebellion against not only the repressive principles of the Victorian era but also the emergence of the fast-changing, materialistic corporate society. The period preceding modernism held up Victorian virtues, which accepted the worldview of everything being ordered, neat, stable, and meaningful. While fundamentally optimistic, Victorian culture featured hypercritical moralism as it had a very narrow, strict viewpoint. We will write a custom essay on Modernism sample specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Modernism eschewed such an absolute, clear-cut apprehension of the world. The movement was fueled by the First World War and led by that devastating war’s intellectual casualties, Gertrude Stein’s ‘the Lost Generation’ whose loss of faith in absolutes led them to search for new morals and ideals. Disillusionment, pessimism, and apathy towards society and the popular consensus colored the works of these artists, the literary leaders of whom were T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Ezra Pound, and Gertrude Stein. Literary modernism challenged the accepted norms of writing on almost every front. It trod away from traditional narrative structure, clean resolutions, and bourgeois morality that marked the preceding literature. Writers tackled the ordinary notions about writing and communication itself, questioning the ability of language to convey meaning, and experimental writing that broke off from tradition marked the movement’s most famous and exemplary works. Instead of content, writers focused on the aesthetics of their words, often forgoing chronological order and coherent narratives in favor of poetic, fragmented, and obscure prose (www.iath.virginia.edu). Stream-of-consciousness writing employed by Joyce and Woolf and other expressions of inward consciousness in narration threw asunder the safeguard of the reliability of the narrator and required active contemplation by the readers. Perspective assumed a far greater importance in literature as writers offered more impressionistic work without omniscient narrators and clean resolutions. The proliferation of the experimental spirit in modernist works of literature often alienated popular readership, and such exclusivity served as a mark of quality to a certain extent as it went in hand with the modernist intellectuals’ disdain towards the mass-consumption-driven popular culture. Modernist intellectuals rejected popular culture, as they perceived that creating work that would be universally accepted often involved certain sacrifices of their genius and ultimately degraded art. The movement was certainly not egalitarian in nature. Modernism in fact strayed away from the idea of thinking in terms of groups, opting instead to focus on the individual. It strove for self-knowledge, and the almost narcissistic interest in the self led to the â€Å"spiritual alienation, self-exile, and cultural criticism† that pervaded the period. The place that Hemingway and Fitzgerald occupied in literary modernism is difficult to pinpoint. They both dabbled with modernist writing styles earlier in their careers, but neither was particularly experimental when it came to the aesthetics of their writing. Fitzgerald and Hemingway, however, did fill critical roles in modernism as the symbols of the so-called ‘Lost Generation’. While Fitzgerald did not demonstrate extraordinary experimentation with his prose, the themes that engrossed his work were quite modernist. The disillusionment with society, contempt for the â€Å"tasteless, greedy, and often violent materialism†, and the concentration on the self and the idea of self-invention were some of the most primary issues of modernism that Fitzgerald explored in his writing (Knapp 2). Hemingway’s work, especially his early work such as In Our Time, was much more true to the modernist spirit than that of Fitzgerald, but Hemingway also did not follow the aesthetic nature of the modernist movement even though his simple, terse style of prose was enormously influential in twentieth century literature. Many of his works are, however, viewed as modernist in their content. In Our Time certainly utilized great experimentation and illustrated painstaking efforts by the artist to establish coherence out of seemingly disparate stories. The Sun Also Rises captured the spirit of the modernist generation and raised issues about the First World War and its imprint on his generation and the role of the modern woman. .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .postImageUrl , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:hover , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:visited , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:active { border:0!important; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:active , .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2 .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u49c78ccc224f129cc2979c7fb03e91a2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Steven Holl - Ideas on Architecture EssayIt is also critical to recognize that Fitzgerald and Hemingway were popular writers. Even though Fitzgerald was not a best-selling author during his lifetime, both of these writers very much catered to the mass-market audience. The fame, wealth, and celebrity were issues with which these men struggled as their hearts belonged to the modernist ideals of the period’s intellectuals while their reputation and success were out of sync with modernism. But ultimately, Hemingway and Fitzgerald occupy important spots in literary modernism as popular culture’s symbols for their generation. Works Cited Knapp, James F., Literary Modernism and the Transformation of Work, (Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL:1989). www.iath.virginia.edu/elab/hfl0255.html Additional Material Willison, Ian, Gould, Warwick, Chernaik, Warren, ed., Modernist Writers and the Marketplace, (MacMillan Press, London:1996). www.ils.unc.edu/%7Ekaisn/pathfind.html www.class.uiadho.edu/eng258_1/modernists/homepageL.htm

Friday, May 1, 2020

Confidence in Organized Labor Essay Example For Students

Confidence in Organized Labor Essay INTRODUCTION Statement of problem People have opinions and thoughts about many issues relating to the work force. They wonder what is the best occupation to get in, how much money they can make in certain fields, who the best employers might be. Some of the big concerns people have when thinking about employment is benefits. What can a company provide to the potential employee in terms of insurance, vacations, advancement, and all the extras associated with the perks of certain companies? At the time do these people wonder about the organizations that may have a say in those benefits they so covet. The labor unions Through my research I have found very little information that deals with Confidence in Organized Labor Essay. Most of the data that I have obtained is more closely related to unions in general than to the people who have confidence in them; and I will attempt to ascertain whether people have confidence in organized labor, not whether they approve or disapprove of labor unions. With the little information that I was able to obtain in this quest, I suggest that this research would be beneficial to sociology by presenting more information on the topic of confidence in organized labor and giving sociologists a platform from which to proceed with further research in this area. Objectives One objective of this paper is to determine whether there is confidence in organized labor. Another objective is to ascertain whether there is an association between certain independent variables relating to the level of confidence in organized labor. LITERATURE REVIEW The topic of confidence in organized labor is an expansive subject which can be studied from the perspectives of many different variables. What I want to know is what others have written about confidence in organized labor, how the different variables of my research react to unions, whether there are any reasons they feel this way, what the unions are doing to gain confidence, and whom they are likely to target for membership. I have read that education may affect the way people feel toward unions (Sares, 1991). Meikasins and Smiths (1993) article about how professionals are not as unionized as their industrious counterparts tend to show an association about income and confidence. (Most professionals earn more than industry workers.) One of the areas of my research is race (Wilson, 1989): does this variable have any association with confidence in organized labor? Another focus of in my research is whether sex can attribute to ones view on labor unions (Sares). Do men or women have the greater confidence in organized labor? What has been done by the labor unions to gain peoples confidence, and what groups have they targeted most (Cosco)? Are there any factors, such as the economy, that contribute to a persons confidence in labor unions (Dalesio)? The research that I have reviewed will be used to assist me in determining how confidence in organized labor is associated with the independent variables that I w ill be using. METHODOLOGY Data In 1972, the General Social Survey (GSS) began collecting data from a random national sample of adults 18 and older. The people interviewed had participated in National Opinion Research Center (NORC) national samples. All of the participants were English-speaking and lived in non-institutional settings within the United States. The general purpose of GSS is to collect information on society and use this data to observe and explain any trends or changes in behaviors. For a modest fee and within a reasonable time period, the results are made accessible to people wishing to use the information. In 2000 the GSS interviewed nearly 3,000 non-institutionalized adults. The sample was chosen by using a multistage, stratified probability sampling design. .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .postImageUrl , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:hover , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:visited , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:active { border:0!important; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:active , .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4675317316286b5d5bb43651134ef64b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Mental Illness Essay This method was chosen so that each participant in the target area would have an equal probability of being chosen. The data gathered from these approximately ninety-minute in-person interviews will be used to assist in this research. Seventy percent of the samples contacted by the GSS responded. The data used in this research was obtained from the GSS. It came from the spring of 2001 survey. The code book was used to select the dependent variable and independent variables for this research. Analytic Strategy Data gathered from this research was analyzed using SPSS. With the SPSS program .

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Sample of a Photo Essay Examples

Sample of a Photo Essay ExamplesWhen you are looking for a sample of a photo essay examples, you want to find something that you know you will like. There are some important things that you need to keep in mind as you are going through your search.The first thing that you need to do is to figure out where you are going to find some sample of a photo essay examples. You may find them online, but many people prefer to look at them in the library. If you know that there is a book that you can borrow from the library, this can help you find the book.When you find the book, make sure that you put down a price and return date so that you can contact the publisher and ask if they have the book that you are looking for. You may also have to take care of other details such as who you want to deliver the book to. If you need to take care of these details, make sure that you contact the publisher at least two weeks before the due date so that you can arrange for delivery. If you cannot contact the publisher within two weeks, you will not be able to get the book.Once you have found the book that you want, look through the different samples that are available for you to choose from. Make sure that you are comfortable with the layout and the content, and that you like the fonts and the images that are used.It is important to pick the photographs that you are going to use for your essay because they are the ones that will speak to the most of what you are trying to say. If you are writing an essay on the impacts of a certain area, it would be a good idea to look at photographs of the affected areas so that you can represent what those areas have meant to you. Your essay is very important, and it is important that you use the right words for it.Some students will opt to use the photographs as part of their essay, and many of them will find that they enjoy the way that they use them. If you are going to do this, make sure that you make a point of saying that the photographs wer e used in the essay and that they were chosen because they will represent your emotions. If you are not using them for an essay, you should not try to use them for a class report.One of the best things about using the photographs is that they can serve several purposes. If you are writing an essay on the 'Hurricane Katrina,' you could use the photograph of New Orleans because it will represent the things that you love about that city. The students that use the photograph in the essay will find that they enjoy it even more, because they will see themselves represented in it.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

The Myth of English Tyranny essays

The Myth of English Tyranny essays The Myth of English Tyranny in the Events Preceding the American Revolution One could attribute the historical perception of King George III to none other than the great American patriot, Thomas Jefferson. In what has been termed the worlds greatest editorial, it was Jefferson who wrote that the King was guilty of repeated injustices and the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. Indeed, Americans have grown fond of thinking of King George III as the virtual archetype of a megalomaniacal ruler, but the evidence doesnt support this long-held view. Although King George instituted harsh economic policies on the American colonists, he was by no means tyrannical or a perpetrator of injustices. Economic policies were the colonists primary point of contention. England decided to handle their economy on the theory of mercantilism. Mercantillism dictated that wealth was power and that a colonys primary function was to serve the mother country as a supplier and a guaranteed market for exports. The most obvious manifestation of this was the Navigation Law of 1650 which limited American trade to only British vessels. Similar laws arose regarding tariffs and enumerated products. Yes, these policies were certainly harsh and perhaps unnecessary, but one must keep in mind that the American colonies were literally the property of Britain. They were funded by Britain, protected by Britain, and in fact the mercantilist policies benefited many of the colonists greatly. It was the principle of King George attempting to assert control over the colonists that truly angered them, but is that not the Kings right? On the surface, the colonists seemed to have a valid point in their immortalized mantra, No taxation without representation. The Stamp Act, the Sugar Act, and the Townshend Acts seem to all be evidence of a severe over-taxation of the colon...

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Definition of Adams-Onis Treaty

Definition of Adams-Onis Treaty The Adams-Onis Treaty was an agreement between the United States and Spain signed in 1819 which established the southern border of the Louisiana Purchase. As part of the agreement, the United States obtained the territory of present day Florida. The treaty was negotiated in Washington, D.C. by the American secretary of state, John Quincy Adams, and the Spanish ambassador to the United States, Luis de Onis. The treaty was viewed as a significant event at the time, and contemporary observers, including former president Thomas Jefferson, lauded the work of John Quincy Adams. Background of the Adams-Onis Treaty Following the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase during the administration of Thomas Jefferson, the United States faced a problem, as it was not entirely clear where the border lay between the territory obtained from France and the territory of Spain to the south. Over the first decades of the 19th century, Americans venturing southward, including Army officer (and possible spy) Zebulon Pike, were apprehended by Spanish authorities and sent back to the United States. A clear border needed to be defined before minor incidents on the border escalated into anything more serious. And in the years following the Louisiana Purchase, the successors to Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe, sought to acquire the two Spanish provinces of East Florida and West Florida (the regions had been loyal to Britain during the American Revolution, but following the Treaty of Paris, they reverted to Spanish rule). Spain was barely holding on to the Floridas. And was therefore receptive to negotiating a treaty which would trade away that land in return for clarifying who owned land to the west, in what today is Texas and the southwestern United States. Complicated Territory The problem Spain faced in Florida was that it claimed the territory, and had a few outposts on it, but it wasnt settled. And the region wasnt being governed in any sense of the word. American settlers were encroaching on its borders, essentially squatting on Spanish land, and conflicts kept arising. Escaped slaves were also crossing into Spanish territory, and at time U.S. troops ventured into Spains land on the pretext of hunting fugitive slaves. Creating further complications, Indians living in Spanish territory would venture into American territory and raid settlements, at times killing the residents. The constant problems along the border seemed likely to erupt at some point into open conflict. Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. In 1818 Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans three years earlier, led a military expedition into Florida. His actions were highly controversial in Washington, as government officials felt he had gone far beyond his orders, especially when he executed two British subjects he considered spies. Negotiation of the Treaty It seemed obvious to leaders of both Spain and the United States that the Americans would eventually come into possession of Florida. So the Spanish ambassador in Washington, Luis de Onis, had been granted full power by his government to make the best deal he could. He met with John Quincy Adams, secretary of state to President Monroe. The negotiations had been disrupted and nearly ended when the 1818 military expedition led by Andrew Jackson ventured into Florida. But the problems caused by Andrew Jackson may have been useful to the American cause. Jacksons ambition and his aggressive behavior no doubt reinforced the fear that of the Spaniards that Americans could be coming into the territory held by Spain sooner or later. The American troops under Jackson had been able to walk into Spainish territory at will. Spain was beset by other problems. And it did not want to station troops, which would have to be supplied, in remote parts of Florida to defend against any future American encroachments. There was no escaping that if American soldiers could march into Florida and just seize it, there was little Spain could do. So Onis thought he might as well dispense with the Florida problem entirely while dealing with the issue of borders along the western edge of the Louisiana territory. The negotiations were resumed and proved fruitful. And Adams and Onis signed their agreement on February 22, 1819. A compromise boundary was established between the U.S. and Spanish territory, and the United States gave up claims to Texas in exchange for Spain giving up any claim to territory in the Pacific Northwest. The treaty, after ratification by both governments, became effective on February 22, 1821.  The treaty was eventually followed by other treaties that essentially confirmed the boundaries set out in 1821. An immediate result of the treaty was that it reduced tensions with Spain, and made the likelihood of another war seem remote. So the military budget of the United States could be cut and the size of the U.S. Army reduced in the 1820s.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Evaluate the causes, consequences and lessons from the Cuban missile Essay

Evaluate the causes, consequences and lessons from the Cuban missile crisis - Essay Example In response, the Kennedy administration found it necessary to reveal to Khrushchev that he had not made any space missiles. Khrushchev had always known the U.S. had more missiles but now he knew that the Americans knew. Khrushchev knew that Soviet missiles were sufficiently powerful to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were able to find all of the Soviet Union. (Article Think Quest, 2011) Moreover, Khrushchev felt boxed in the enemies. For example, he cited the U.S. missiles in Turkey, only 150 km away from the Soviet Union, Cuba was only 90 km from the coast of Florida, but the gap of 60 km was "no anti-missile" Khrushchev said. Above all, however, Khrushchev feared the first strike in on whether the Soviet Union lost the arms race so badly, he worried, call the first strike with nuclear weapons the United States because of Khrushchev began looking for a way to counter the United States, for example. (Article Think Quest, 2011) One of the main reasons was the fear of inva sion of Cuba, the United States since he came to power in 1959, Cuban Premier Fidel Castro was aware of certain United States is trying to move him. First there was the failed Bay of Pigs invasion by CIA-backed Cuban exiles in 1961. One was a U.S. military exercise in 1962. The armed forces in a mockery of an attack on a fictitious Caribbean island to overthrow the dictator, whose name was Castro Ortsac back. In addition, the United States was drawing up a plan to invade Cuba (Operation Mongoose). Mock attack and the attack plan was drawn up to keep Castro nervous. Finally, the CIA was running covert operations throughout Cuba trying to damage the Castro government. So, Castro was convinced the United States was seriously invade Cuba. (Article Think Quest, 2011) In April 1962, designed the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev to the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. Deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a possible U.S. attack against the Soviet Union or Cuba. Khrushchev promoted the KGB station chief in Cuba Alexander Alekseev to Ambassador to negotiate for Castro's approval of the plan. Castro did not openly reject the idea at first, but instead he gave it serious. To believe it is better to risk a great crisis than wait helplessly for an invasion, Castro accepted Khrushchev's offer. In mid-July 1962 the USSR began its construction of offensive weapons in Cuba. The crisis could have and should have been avoided. If we had done an earlier, stronger and more clearly explain our position regarding Soviet nuclear weapons on the Western Hemisphere, or if the Soviet government was more thoroughly assessed the evidence existed at that point, it is likely that the missiles would never have been sent to Cuba. Importance of accurate assessment of mutual interests between the two superpowers, are clear and consistent. Reliable intelligence and allows the effective selection, the response was just the right time. It 'been mostly political mistakes, and professionals who have made a lot of intelligence is available in the past. But it was also a timely recognition of the need not fly to the bottom of the dangers that produced the decisive photographs. The need and extent of control from above, including the audit work of the Soviet missile withdrawal should not be underestimated. When the importance of accurate data crucial policy decision is high enough, otherwise

Monday, February 3, 2020

Analytical Study on the Issues Related to Gun Control Essay

Analytical Study on the Issues Related to Gun Control - Essay Example The issue of gun control is augmented with the present tendencies of using handguns by the civilians and students, who cause for much havoc among the people. The sniper shootings in America have made a deep threat among the civilians in America. In such circumstances it is worthwhile to redefine the American democratic system with its application in the present issue. Therefore, this essay tries to analyze the issue of gun control with the democratic features of pluralism, stratificationism and hyper pluralism. The Issues related to Gun control in America show a specialty of the democratic aspect, that is, Pluralism. There are different notions regarding gun control in America. The BBC reports, â€Å"Americans now appear equally split between urban liberals who want gun control and tough environmental controls, and country dwellers who oppose abortion on demand and support hunting with guns† (BBC News). Some of the states like California, Illinois, New York and the District of Columbia support some sort of control in gun rights. The states like Washington, Florida and Texas stand for the gun rights. In the states like Alaska and Arizona the concealed carry laws are so simple and so everyone can have guns. The gun control has been viewed differently by Democratic Party and Republican Party. The Democratic Party stands for the gun control measures whereas the Republican Party stands against the gun control (BBC News). So it can be stated that the issue of gun control is a partisan issue. Some states, some groups and some political parties support gun control whereas some, on the other side, critically object it. The gun control in the country remains to be a sharply attacked by the gun lobby prevalent in America. NRA (National Rifle Association) is the most powerful lobby arguing for the citizens’ rights of gun. It adheres to the Bill of Rights as put forward by the 2nd Amendment which ensures the citizens to possess gun. The gun lobbyists in Americ a stand as a supreme interest group in America projecting the dominance of interest groups in American democracy. The bill on gun control was presented in the different Houses of the state but was denied support by taking the 2nd Amendment of the Constitution which states that every American citizen has the right to protect his/her life from others, and therefore, the Constitution gives him the right to bear arms. This constitutional right could not be changed even in the modern scenario due to the influence of the gun lobbyists. The Second Amendment of American Constitution stands for the rights for guns. It ensures the citizens’ rights to own the firearms. The modern incidents of mass killing by the firearms have made the people to rethink about the excessive use of guns in America. The mass killing 32 innocent people on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University at Virginia, and the similar incidents at various parts of the country, have put the stat es to regulate on the use of guns by the civilians. The proposal of the states to ban gun was thoroughly failed by the influence of gun lobbies in America. In America around 145 groups are arguing for the gun culture and NRA is having the most influence of these all. The Pluralistic aspect of democracy has excessively played its role on this issue. Pluralism is a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Obesity in the Southern United States

Obesity in the Southern United States Marion T. Stevens Introduction Obesity has emerged as one of the leading causes of death in the United States of America. In the Bible belt (Southern States) obesity is very common which complicates health and the economy as well as treatment to individuals. Furthermore, obesity in the southern states is a result of culture, economic status and ethnicity. According to Akil (2011), obesity is basically a manifestation of energy imbalance mainly defined as the balance between the consumed energy, by drink as well as food, and the energy expended through physical activity and metabolism. Obesity, which correlates to lifestyle behaviors, can be characterized by reducing levels of physical activity or increased consumption of diets that are energy-dense, or even both. Over the past three decades, the US has witnessed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity as well as reports on disparities among the population. With regard to the disparities in the prevalence of diabetes among the US population, the Southern States of the US record the highest obesity rates in the country based on the new report by the Institute for America’s Health. According to the report obesity rates increased in twenty eight states by 2010 with a decline only reported in Washington, DC. Out of the 11 states recording the highest rates, 10 of them are situated in the South, with Mississippi recording the highest rate for six consecutive years (World Health Organization, 2013). Statement of the problem There has been an increasing debate and the controversy over the appropriate intervention measures to be taken in order to curb the prevalence of diabetes in the southern states. The issue is whether the government should intervene and take a stand on the daily recommended dietary consumption. For instance, as a response to this and for the very first time, the Southern Obesity Summit, the largest regional obesity prevention unit, held its 7th Annual Southern Obesity Summit in November, 2013, drawing a majority of the participants from the sixteen southern states. Looking at it from a broader cultural perspective, the increased rate of diabetes can be attributed to the lifestyle of the Southerners and their nutrition. The high prevalence of obesity in the southern states of the US (the Bible Belt) poses challenges to both the government as well as health institutions. This phenomenon complicates the health and the economic situation of the region as well as the high cost of treatment. As pointed out in Wang and Beydoun (2007), the cost of treatment stood at $ 117 billion annually. Today, the cost has almost tripled (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). The CDC survey report goes further to indicate that over 30 percent of the population in the Southern States is obese. Studies have shown that obesity in these Southern States is mainly as a result of socio-economic factors, ethnicity, as well as the culture of the Southerners. Review of Literature According to the Institute for America’s Health Report (2010), obesity in America in 2008 cost the nation approximately $147 billion in weight-related medical bills that is double the amount in the previous decade. Parham and Scarinci (2007), point out that people with obesity have an annual medical bill of $ 1,429 higher than the normal-weight people. The leading states in the south for obesity rate include: Mississippi (33.8%), Alabama and Tennessee (31 % tie), West Virginia (31.3 %), Louisiana (31.2%), Kentucky (30.5%), Arkansas (30.1%), South Carolina (29.9%), and Michigan (29.4%) tied with North Carolina (29.4%) (United States Census Bureau, 2009). According to Akil (2011), the higher rate of obesity can be linked to socioeconomic factors such as income, poverty, and unemployment, among others. The study indicates that the higher rates of obesity were recorded among the Southerners as compared to the Northerners. The prevalence was highest in Mississippi, which also recorded the highest level of poverty with 21 percent of its residents living below the poverty line. Alabama and West Virginia, which rank second and third in obesity prevalence rates respectively, are both ranked the fifth poorest (Ezzati, Martin, Skjold, Vander Hoorn, Murray, 2006). Generally, the south has a poverty rate of 14 percent being the most impoverished part of the country (U. S. Census Bureau, 2009). The income disparities among the population is considered as a contributing factor to this trend in the US and more so in the Southern States. The southerners have limited access to healthy food with little purchasing power. The cultural lifestyle of the southerners predisposes them to obesity. Southerners enjoy feeding on fried food ranging from chicken, onions, green tomatoes, and pickles, to corn bread. Nutritional educators attribute the increased rate of obesity to the regional feeding habits. This situation is aggravated by poor physical exercise among the Southerners, since it is difficult for them to exercise outdoors when an opportunity arises, it is often hot, at times over 100 degrees, and humid. Furthermore, states such as Mississippi and Tennessee lack abundant sidewalks and have narrow roads, hence jogging and biking becomes hard for them (Wang Beydoun, 2007). Nutritional education is a significant contributor to the increased rate of obesity among the residents of the southern states of America. Nutrition educators have put concerted efforts in educating the people on the proper eating and exercise habits (Balluz, Okoro Mokdad, 2008). The majority of the population feed on junk food, fried food, and do not engage in regular physical exercise, thus predisposing themselves to obesity. For instance, Arkansas passed a body mass index-screening program, in elementary schools to assess weight and then send the results to the parents. Tennessee, on the other hand, encourages schools to purchase fresh ingredients from the local growers. In 2007, the state of Mississippi adopted certain nutritional standards for its school lunches. All these nutritional interventions are taken in a bid to combat this affliction (Powell, Stater, Mirtcheva, Bao Chaloupka, 2007). Methods The study used descriptive survey design where data was collected and analyzed (CDC, 2013). Since it is hard to study the whole population in the southern United States, the research sample was selected using random sampling technique. The following southern states were selected for the study: Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Arkansas. Colorado was also selected in the sample for comparison. The study was mainly qualitative, and qualitative data was collected and analyzed. Data was presented using texts, to describe the prevalence of obesity among the Southern Unites States. This research paper derives from secondary sources, mainly the obesity and obesity-related health studies conducted in the Southern States and the United States at large, and the above stated southern states in particular. Factual data has been retrieved from articles published in Peer Reviewed Health Journals as well as from world fact sheets. The study collected demographic data such as ethnicity, sex and geographic location. Data analysis was done using regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results and Discussion The research study found that obesity in the Southern States is exacerbated by inadequate significant policies to address issues of community design, such as suburban sprawl and sidewalks, as well as wider accessibility and affordability of healthy food options including the ‘urban grocery store gap’ (World Health Organization, 2013). The results indicated that there is a correlation between ethnicity and obesity in the southern United States. This high prevalence is mainly attributed to the lifestyle of southerners who mainly feed on fried foods. For instance, in 2004, a study by the University of North Carolina found out that majority of the food-shopping options in most part of the southern region fall under the category of ‘convenient stores’ since traditional grocery stores are situated too far away, hence the aforementioned gap. The lifestyle of Southerners is a predisposing factor to obesity due to their dietary habits. In addition, the high rate of o besity in the southern states is as a result of economic constraints. The majority of the states in the southern region are ranked among the poorest in the country (Ezzati et al, 2006). Colorado recorded the lowest rate of obesity, according to the study results (Akil, 2011). The researcher included Colorado in the study sample so as to check for any disparity and/or offer a comparison. The findings of this study provided a justification for hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between obesity and the Southerner’s nutrition education. Conclusion Deriving from the finding of this study it is evident that the rate of diabetes is highest among residents of the southern states of the United States. The causes are mainly attributed to socioeconomic factors, culture and lifestyle, as well as ethnicity. However, the US government has put in place policy measures to combat the affliction. The intervention measures are mainly skewed toward provisional of nutritional education and implementation of poverty reduction strategies. The health status was found to improve with the rise in incomes. The poorer people have a limited access to groceries and health care. Limitations of the Study Since it was hard to study all the states in the south, only a few states were selected for the study. Moreover, there could be other predisposing factors for obesity rather than those focused on by the researcher. The demographics of the study also need to be more detailed, the study did not address race and income levels nor did it cover the environment of green space available for exercise within the studies. Recommendation for further Research There is need for further research to check for any relationship between obesity and other factors such as education, gender, heredity, climate and age. Similar studies should be extended to other states in the north to establish other causal factors that could be leading to the increased obesity rates in the south as compared to the northern states. Routine (BMI) Body Mass Index calculation, weight, height and blood pressure should be conducted at all routine patient visits. If the BMI is above 85 percentile, initiate farther screening. Obesity warrants immediate attention; consider using the HEAT clinical practice guidelines (McAdams, 2010). The key to battling obesity is prevention in the early stages; this will be led by promoting health eating and exercise to the new generation of youth. References Akil, L. (2011). Effects of Socio-economic Factors on obesity rates in four southern states and Colorado. National institute of Health Journal. 21 (1): 58-62. Balluz, L. S., Okoro, C. A, Mokdad, A. (2008). Association between selected unhealthy lifestyle factors, body mass index, and chronic health condition among individuals 50 years of age or older, by race /ethnicity. Ethnicity Dis. 18(4):450–457. CDC, (2013) Health Disparities and Inequalities Report United States. Retrieved on February 20, 2014 from: www.cdc.gov Ezzati, M., Martin, H., Skjold, S., Vander Hoorn, S. Murray, C. J. (2006). Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys. J R Soc Med. 99:250–257. McAdams, Cynthia (2010). The environment and pediatric overweight: a review for nurse practioners. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22 (9), 460-467. Dio 10,1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00537.x Parham, G. P. Scarinci, I. C. (2007). Strategies for achieving healthy energy balance among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta. Prev Chronic Dis. 4(4): A97. Powell, L. M., Stater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y. Chaloupka, F.J. (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med. 44(3): 189–195. The Institute for America’s Health. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: www.healthy-america.org United States Census of Bureau (2009). Cen-Stats Database. Retrieved on January 23, 2014 from: www.censtats.census.gov Wang. Y., Beydoun, M. A. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 29:6–28. Word Health Organization. (2013). Obesity and overweight. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Pe Assignment 1

Performance Task # 2- Direction: Answer the following: (answers shall be based on the assignment Video: Sayaw) Key point: the Spaniards came to the Philippines in the 16th century. They found out that dance and music were woven and is part of the Filipinos everyday life. Q. Where is it intertwined? 1. Courtship 2. Love 3. Politics 4. ____________________ 5_____________________ 6. _________________________ 7. ______________________ Key point: the Spaniards employ dances and music to introduce religion to Filipinos. Dance has become religious activity for feasts of saints and for praising. They introduce secular dances from Europe.The Filipinos assimilated it and it evolves in the Filipino culture. List down the European Dances introduced by the Spaniards in the Philippines. And the Filipino adaptation of the dances Follow the cue given. 8. La Jota- a social dance for special occasion for the Spaniards. Usually accompanied with string instruments. 9. La Jota Montavena – the Fili pino version characterized by fast and lively movement wherein waltz is a common step it is from the province of Tarlac. 10. La Jota Manilena- it is a version which is done in honor of the old city of Manila. 1. Valse/Waltz – a dance originally from Southern Germany introduced to the Philippines on the 19th century. It was also assimilated by the Filipinos and incorporated it to their own version. 12. Balitaw – a courtship dance from the Visayas 13. Carinosa – a courtship dance with characteristic use of fan and handkerchief. 14. Fandango – dance for special occasion such as wedding 15. Pandang Pandang – a version from Antique wherein a gecko went up the grooms trouser so he Stamped to remove the lizard without the crowds knowledge institutionalizing theStamping movement as part of the dance. 16. Fandango Sambalilo – a dance version where the guys try to pick up a hat on the floor with the use of his head. 17. Fandango sa Ilaw – a dan ce version from Mindoro wherein the ladies carry lighted oil lamps in their head and hands. 18. Habanera- a dance originally from Havana Cuba 19. Habanera de Sultera – a Filipino adaptation of this dance from Pangasinan which is the last dance of a couple before they get married. 20.Mazurka – a ballroom dance from Polland. 21. Mazurka Moderato- an adaptation of this dance wherein the couples gather informally, the steps Used are sangig, salok, step close step and redoba. 22. Mazurka Mindorena- the premiere dance of the elites in Mindoro which was popularized by our Our hero Don Antonio Luna. 23. Polka – originally a ballroom dance for grand social affair. 24. Maliket a Polka – an adaptation from Pangasinan, characterized by happy movement, a dance for Sto.Nino. 25. Polka sa Nayon – an adaptation from Batangas 26. Rigodon – popular ceremonial dances for the elite. 27. Rigodon – dance of the elite with the use of cabesera and costados a s position based on their Importance in the society. 28. ______________- a dance wherein the purpose is for the ladies to be seen by gentlemen, they try to Outdress each other, it was introduced in the 1850’s. Key point: the dances evolved and was integrated thereby creating a combination of different dances to form new dance. 9. Polkaval – a combination of polka and valse from Atimonan Quezon 30. Jotaval – a combination of Jota and Valse from Gumaca Quezon II. Essay 1. Give at least 5 Filipino researchers who contributed in the documentation and propagation of Philippine folk dance throughout the Philippines and the world. Cite their contribution. (10pts) 2. How did the rural folks assimilated the dances introduced by the Spaniards and patronized by the local elites as part of their lives? Where was the transmutation based? What has become of these dances? Answer in a 5 sentence paragraph only. (5pts)

Friday, January 10, 2020

Short Argumentative Essay Topics Explained

Short Argumentative Essay Topics Explained Narrative essays don't have such arguments. Argumentative essays are a few of the best that you can write as a student. An argumentative essay doesn't include unsubstantiated opinions. Writing a persuasive, argumentative essay can be challenging, and at times it can find a little confusing. A very good persuasive argument will use the latest data and data from verified sources. First of all, attempt to select an argumentative essay topic that inspires you and can provide you enough materials to research. Look through the list of topics with care and get started making a mental collection of the evidence you're able to use on topics you want. Thus, the topic is going to have to be well thought out because it is going to determine the standard of your paper. Remember you will want to analyze arguments and evidence for your essay to appear good. Remember an argumentative essay is based more on facts instead of emotion. A conclusio n is, without doubt, the most significant portion of the argumentative essay since you can either support the fantastic impression or destroy it entirely. It gives the overall verdict of the argument. When you get rid of an argument, odds are you only used opinion to hold up your position. You're going to need to select a topic first, but your topic ought to be something that has two conflicting points or distinct conclusions. You will have to back up your viewpoint with well-researched facts and data too. Short Argumentative Essay Topics Can Be Fun for Everyone If you're looking for examples of argumentative essays, here's a sample that will help you out! Popular themes for academic papers can be seen on our site too. Short essays are important when one is hoping to present an important topic without needing to compose plenty of words or using numerous pages. You may continue to keep your argumentative essays for your upcoming job portfolio in case they're highly graded. What About Short Argumentative Essay Topics? Instead of just immediately writing about your argumentative essay topic, you first have to think about what it is that you are likely to put back on your pape r through a procedure of brainstorming and pre-writing. If you are going to compose an argumentative essay, the very first thing you have to do is to understand its principal features and structure. It is essential to decide on a great topic so as to compose a good paper. Each suggestion was supposed to highlight a particular field of inspiration. In such cases, you don't wish to go for topics that require a great deal of research and preparation. You will need to conduct a thorough research and propose your own remedy to the present issue. One particular important and appropriate subject is technology. The issue is that everybody's interpretation of what makes a great society differs. The Battle Over Short Argumentative Essay Topics and How to Win It The topic has to be interesting, the topic has to be essential and finally the topic has to be informative. Quite frequently, the very best topic is one which you truly care about, but you also will need to get well prepare d to research it. The key to select a great topic for an argumentative essay is to choose a subject where there's a lot of debates on topics or stances. There are a few great topics to look at when picking a topic for your argumentative essay. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. Every argumentative essay ought to be based on a topic which can be debated. Moral argumentative essay topics are a few of the simplest to get carried away with. Recent argumentative essay topics that are related to society is going to do. College application essay topics are a crucial portion of an entertaining and compelling bit of writing. If you should compose your essay a couple of days before the deadline, being focused on your assignment may not be sufficient. If you must compose your whole essay in 1 day, do your very best to give yourself breaks so you don't burn out. There are many steps which you should take to be able to compose an exceptional essay. Is it true that the paparazzi help or hinder the goal of completely free press. The first thing you're likely to have to do is to choose a topic that has more than one clear side. When you're picking your topic, remember that it's much simpler to write about something which you presently have interest ineven in case you don't know a good deal about it. For instance, there isn't any way you'll be able to argue on the subject of whether humans walk on two legs because it is a known fact with no attached debate. The War Against Short Argumentative Essay Topics Bear in mind that you could make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. Before you turn in your assignment, you are going to want to appear over it one final moment. Revisit a minute in your life which you feel you won't ever have the ability to forget. Second, talk what you shouldn't do instead of what should be done. Quite frequently, college essay topics prove to be more challenging than students expected, therefore it may be reasonable to request assistance. The role of assigning an essay to middle school students is to make awareness and permit them to develop writing skills. They should be allowed to pray in school. Tons of student s put on a uniform.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Sociology

Deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning are two different approaches to conducting scientific research. Using deductive reasoning, a researcher tests a theory by collecting and examining empirical evidence to see if the theory is true. Using inductive reasoning, a researcher first gathers and analyzes data, then constructs a theory to explain her findings. Within the field of sociology, researchers use both approaches. Often the two are used in conjunction when conducting research and when drawing conclusions from results. Deductive Reasoning Many scientists consider deductive reasoning the gold standard for scientific research. Using this method, one begins with a theory or hypothesis, then conducts research in order to test whether that theory or hypothesis is supported by specific evidence. This form of research begins at a general, abstract level and then works its way down to a more specific and concrete level. If something is found to be true for a category of things, then it is considered to be true for all things in that category in general. An  example of how deductive reasoning is applied within sociology can be found in a 2014 study of whether biases of race or gender shape access to graduate-level education. A team of researchers used deductive reasoning to hypothesize that, due to the prevalence of racism in society, race would play a role in shaping how university professors respond to prospective graduate students who express interest in their research. By tracking professor responses (and lack of responses) to imposter students, coded for race and gender by name, the researchers were able to prove their hypothesis true. They concluded, based on their research, that racial and gender biases are barriers that prevent equal access to graduate-level education across the U.S. Inductive Reasoning Unlike deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning begins with specific observations or real examples of events, trends, or social processes. Using this data, researchers then progress analytically to broader generalizations and theories that help explain the observed cases. This is sometimes called a bottom-up approach because it starts with specific cases on the ground and works its way up to the abstract level of theory. Once a researcher has identified patterns and trends amongst a set of data, he or she can then formulate a hypothesis to test, and eventually develop some general conclusions or theories. A classic example of inductive reasoning in sociology is  Ãƒâ€°mile Durkheims study of suicide. Considered one of the first works of social science research, the  famous and widely taught book, Suicide, details how Durkheim created a sociological theory of suicide—as opposed to a psychological one—based on his scientific study of suicide rates among Catholics and Protestants. Durkheim found that suicide was more common among Protestants than Catholics, and he drew on his training in social theory to create some typologies of suicide and a general theory of how suicide rates fluctuate according to significant changes in social structures and norms. While inductive reasoning is commonly used in scientific research, it is not without its weaknesses. For example, it is not always logically valid to assume that a general principle is correct simply because it is supported by a limited number of cases. Critics have suggested that Durkheims theory is not universally true because the trends he observed could possibly be explained by other phenomena particular to the region from which his data came. By nature, inductive reasoning is more open-ended and exploratory, especially during the early stages. Deductive reasoning is more narrow and is generally used to test or confirm hypotheses. Most social research, however, involves both inductive and deductive reasoning throughout the research process. The scientific norm of logical reasoning provides a two-way bridge between theory and research. In practice, this typically involves alternating between deduction and induction.