Sunday, September 1, 2019
Afghanistan and Turkic States
Turkmenistan formerly also known asÃ TurkmeniaÃ (Russian: ), is one of theÃ Turkic statesÃ inÃ Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of theÃ Soviet Union, theTurkmen Soviet Socialist RepublicÃ (Turkmen SSR). Turkmenistan is one of the six independentÃ Turkic states. It is bordered byAfghanistanÃ to the southeast,Ã IranÃ to the south and southwest,Ã UzbekistanÃ to the east and northeast,Ã KazakhstanÃ to the north and northwest and theÃ Caspian SeaÃ to the west. Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 11% in 2010Ã ranks 4th in the world, but these figures are subject to wide margins of error. 5]It possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by theÃ Karakum (Black Sand) Desert. The Turkmen government operates as aÃ single-party system. Ã Turkmenistan was ruled byÃ President for LifeÃ Saparmurat NiyazovÃ (c alled Ã¢â¬Å"TurkmenbasyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"leader of the TurkmensÃ¢â¬ ) until his sudden death on 21 December 2006. Gurbanguly BerdymukhammedovÃ was elected the new president on 11 February 2007.The territory of Turkmenistan has a long history, as armies from one empire after another decamped there on their way to more prosperous territories. The region's written history begins with its conquest by theÃ Achaemenid EmpireÃ of ancient Persia, as the region was divided between theÃ satrapiesÃ ofÃ Margiana,Ã KhorezmÃ andÃ Parthia.  Alexander the GreatÃ conquered the territory in the 4th centuryÃ BCÃ on his way toÃ Central Asia, around the time that theÃ Silk Roadwas established as a major trading route betweenÃ AsiaÃ and theÃ Mediterranean Region. citation needed] Approximately 80 years later, Persia'sÃ Parthian KingdomÃ established its capital inÃ Nisa, now in the suburbs of the capital,Ashgabat. After replacement of the P arthian empire by Persian Sassanids, another native Iranian dynasty, the region remained territory of the Persian empire for several centuries.  In the 7th century AD,Ã ArabsÃ conquered this region, introducingÃ Islam. The Turkmenistan region soon came to be known as the capital ofÃ Greater Khorasan, when the caliphÃ Al-Ma'munÃ moved his capital toÃ Merv. citation needed] In the middle of the 11th century, theÃ Turkoman-ruledÃ Seljuk EmpireÃ concentrated its strength in the territory of modern Turkmenistan in an attempt to expand intoÃ KhorasanÃ (modernAfghanistan). The empire broke down in the second half of the 12th century, and the Turkmen lost their independence whenÃ Genghis KhanÃ took control of the easternÃ Caspian SeaÃ region on his march west. For the next seven centuries, the Turkmen people lived under various empires and fought constant inter-tribal wars. Little is documented of Turkmen history prior toÃ RussianÃ engagement.